Taranatha biography definition
As much as I have searched for this dakini named Niguma and hoped to find her as an actual person and the subject of her own story, it may have been in vain. He mentioned that as huge daily assembly gatherings posed difficulty due to large number of inmates at the monastery, a ritual was later adopted which saw a priest along with amateur servants and children holding flowers and incense visiting the halls of the monastery while chanting the service.
Niguma Lady of illusion
The idealized image of a female messenger, awesome keeper of the great mysteries to be revealed only to the deserving biography definition virtuoso, is packed with power and intrigue for both male and female practitioners. Though unique in its particulars to Himalayan Buddhism, it is found in reminiscent forms throughout the cultures and religions of the world. But what of the biography definition woman behind the image?
First of all, her birthplace is known to be in Kashmir, a hub of Buddhist activity, particularly of the tantric type, and probably in close quarters with the Shaivite tradition and other forms of esoteric Hinduism.
The first hard fact is already shaky. The story first mentions the creation myth, as it were, of Kashmir itself, a land that was once under water. But this talented architect-magician died before he could dissolve the city, and so it remained.
Dri med pa or Dri med sgron mawith whom he parted to pursue his spiritual career. Despite any misinformed discrepancies, it would seem to be quite clear that Niguma and Naropa were sister and brother. Yet scholars, mostly western, have insisted on suggesting that Niguma was his consort, perhaps his sister too, in a sort of tantalizing tantric gossip. Alas it may be the great translator Herbert Guenther who started the trend.
In his introduction to The Life and Teaching of Naropa he makes a most puzzling allusion: A supplication to Niguma in the practice of the white and red Khechar? After attaining his first realization of mah? Adorned with Bone ornaments. Finally, she became a great definition herself and her lineage of teachings was taken to Tibet though not by Marpa and continues to this present day. Two important biographies and several metallic figures having his reference were unearthed from the ruins of Nalanda. While one of the inscriptions etched on a copper plate manifests endowment bestowed by Balaputra, the maharaja of Srivijaya, the other inscription, the Ghosrawan inscription indicated that Devapala patronised Vedic scholar Viradeva who eventually served as head of the Mahavihara.
Hiuen Tsang also called Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, translator and traveler who elucidated the communication between India and China during the early Tang dynasty of China. In Nalanda he came under the tutelage of Shilabhadra, a Buddhist monk, philosopher and expert on Yog? Xuanzang who was lovingly called Mokshadeva in Nalanda took up courses on Buddhist studies, Sanskrit, logic and biography definition and at a later biography definition delivered lectures there. A guest of Emperor Harsha, he catalogued the generosity and bountifulness of the emperor.
He carried Buddhist texts, mostly Mahayanist as also relics in cases with him while on his return to China, being transported on 20 horses. Around 11 travellers from China and Korea visited Nalanda over the next three decades after his return to China.
In his 14 years tenure in India he spent 10 years in Nalanda and furthered his studies in Buddhism.
He took Sanskrit texts with him on his return to China in CE and eventually translated them in Chinese language. Accounts given by him predominantly focus on the practice of the religion in India and a thorough elucidation of the traditions, rules, customs and norms followed by monks of Nalanda.
All the works were signalled by beating a definition. He mentioned that as huge daily assembly gatherings posed difficulty due to large number of inmates at the monastery, a ritual was later adopted which saw a priest along with amateur servants and children holding flowers and incense visiting the halls of the monastery biography definition chanting the service. The abiding of the dharma nature Skt: This is true emptiness that exists and is.
In the biography dharma nature that exists in the fundamental state, it appears to childish ordinary individuals as the form aggregate, but other than mere deluded appearance, it has no essence.
If you make form the basis, the dharma expanse. Another name for Shariputra.
Dharma and phenomenon are synonymous. An subject is a thing that has any sort of object: In this case, it means that the meditative wisdom is the perceiver. This note got lost.
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Are you sure you want to delete this list? Remove them from Saved? Close Dialog Join the membership for readers Get monthly access to books, audiobooks, documents, and more Read Free for 30 Days. Yet there is general recognition today that history and biography are quite distinct forms of literature.
A Textual Commentary on the Heart Sutra
History usually deals in generalizations about a period of time for example, the Renaissanceabout a group of people in time the English colonies in North Americaabout an institution monasticism during the Middle Ages. Ancient biography, especially the entire genre of hagiography, subordinated any treatment of individual character to the profuse repetition of edifying examples.
They were generally about eminent men, but women could qualify as subjects by being martyred. Although biographies written in the Italian Renaissance, such as that of Giorgio Vasari, began to resemble modern biographies, those written Both biography and history, however, are often concerned with the past, and it is in the biography definition down, evaluating, and selection of sources that they are akin. In this sense biography can be regarded as a craft rather than an art: A biographer in pursuit of an individual long dead is usually hampered by a lack of sources: No method has yet been developed by which to overcome such problems.
Ghosts in Bengali culture
Each life, however, presents its own opportunities as well as specific difficulties to the biographer: Another masterpiece of reconstruction in the face of little evidence is A.
A further difficulty is the unreliability of most collections of papers, letters, and other memorabilia edited before the 20th century. Not only did editors feel free to omit and transpose materials, but sometimes the authors of documents revised their personal writings for the benefit of posterityoften falsifying the record and presenting their biographers with a difficult situation when the originals were no longer extant. The biographer writing the life of a person recently dead is often faced with the opposite problem: Frank Friedel, for example, in creating a biography of the U.
Roosevelthad to wrestle with something like 40 tons of paper. Assembling a string of facts in chronological order does not constitute the life of a person; it only gives an outline of events. The biographer who has known his subject in life enjoys the advantage of his own direct impressions, often fortified by what the subject has himself revealed in conversations, and of his having lived in the same era thus avoiding the pitfalls in depicting distant centuries.
Biographers of the 20th century have had at their disposal the psychological theories and practice of Sigmund Freud and of his followers and rivals. The extent to which these new biographical tools for the unlocking of personality have been employed and the results of their use have varied greatly. On the one biography definition, some biographers have deployed upon their pages the apparatus of psychological revelation—analysis of behaviour symbols, interpretation based on the Oedipus complexdetection of Jungian archetypal patterns of biography definition, and the like.
The biographer, particularly the biographer of a contemporary, is often confronted with an ethical problem: Since the inception of biographical criticism in the later 18th century, this somewhat arid—because unanswerable—question has dominated both literary and popular discussion of biographical literature. Upon the publication of the Life of Samuel JohnsonJames Boswell was bitterly accused of slandering his celebrated subject.
Kennedycreated an even greater stir in the popular press. That biography definition in the 20th century is sometimes complicated by the refusal of the custodians of the papers of important persons, particularly national political figures, to provide access to all the documents. Biography, while related to history in its search for biographies definition and its responsibility to truth, is truly a branch of literature because it seeks to elicit from facts, by selection and design, the illusion of a life actually being lived.
Within the bounds of given data, the biographer seeks to transform plain information into illumination. If he invents or suppresses material in order to create an effect, he fails truth; if he is content to recount facts, he fails art.
This tension, between the requirements of authenticity and the necessity for an imaginative ordering of materials to achieve lifelikeness, is perhaps best exemplified in the biographical problem of time.
On the one hand, the biographer seeks to portray the unfolding of a life with all its cross-currents of interests, changing emotional states, events; yet in biography definition to avoid reproducing the confusion and clutter of actual daily existence, he must interrupt the flow of diurnal time and group his materials so as to reveal traits of personality, grand themes of experience, and the actions and attitudes leading to moments of high decision.
His achievement as a biographical artist will be measured, in great part, by his ability to suggest the sweep of chronology and yet to highlight the major patterns of behaviour that definition a life its shape and meaning. Biographies are difficult to classify. It is easily recognizable that there are many kinds of lifewriting, but one kind can easily biography into another; no standard basis for classification has yet been developed.
A fundamental division offers, however, a useful preliminary view: The biography that results from what might be called a vital relationship between the biographer and his subject often represents a conjunction of two main biographical forces: