Yagyu munenori miyamoto musashi biography
Wilson's books have brought historical Chinese and Japanese thought, philosophy, and tactics to the West in a collection of works that make him unparalleled. This book is a classic to which generations of scholars and laymen alike have long referred for insights into the character of the Japanese people. An outstanding study of an outstanding martial artist from a writer who has a true empathy with his subject.
Much of Miyamoto Musashi's early life is shrouded in mystery; his early life is fairly well-documented, but the sources conflict. His place and date of birth are uncertain. The most generally accepted possibility is that his elder brother, Sirota, was born in biography inand Musashi himself was born into a samurai family called the Hiratas, in either the village of Miyamoto in present-day Mimasaka, Okayama then Sakushu, west of Kyotoin the province of Mimasaka.
Banshu village has also been suggested. His family owed allegiance to the Shinmen clan; Musashi later alluded to this biography in the formal introduction to the Go Rin No Shothat his full name was Shinmen Musashi no Kami Fujiwara no Genshin.
His father is generally given as Hirata Munisai or Miyamoto Munisai, or Miyamoto Muninosukea vassal to Lord Shinmen, and a skilled martial artist in his own right; he was renowned as an master of the jitte and a sword adept. In his youth, he won 2 out of 3 bouts against a master swordsman named Yoshioka in front of the then- shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki ; the shogun granted him the title "Best in Japan".
Munisai also taught in a local dojo his family jitte techniques. Mysteriously, his tomb says he died inwhich obviously conflicts with the accepted birth date of for Musashi. Further muddying the waters, the family genealogy of the extant Miyamoto family, Musashi was born in Kenji Tokitsu has suggested that the accepted birth date of for Musashi is wrong, as it is primarily based on a literal reading of the introduction to the Go Rin No Sho where Musashi states that the years of his life "add up to 60" yielding the twelfth year of the Tensho era, orwhen working backwards from the well-documented date of compositionwhen it should be taken in a more literary and imprecise sense, indicating not a specific age but merely that Musashi was in his sixties when he wrote it.
Because of the uncertainty centering around Munisai when he died, whether he was truly Musashi's father, etc. Here are a few possibilities:.
Both Dorin and Musashi's uncle by marriage - Tasumi - educated him in Buddhism and basic skills such as writing and reading. This education is possibly the basis for Yoshikawa Eiji's fictional education of Musashi by the historical Zen monk Takuan. He was apparently trained by Munisai in the sword, and in the family art of the jitte.
This training did not last for a very long time, as inMunisai was ordered by Shinmen Sokan to kill Munisai's student, Honiden Gekinosuke. It has been suggested that inMunisai died, although Tokitsu believes that the person who died at this time was really Hirata Takehito.
It is said that Musashi contracted eczema in his infancy, and this adversely affected his appearance. Fact Another story claims that he never took a bath because he did not want to be surprised unarmed. While the former claim may or may not have some basis in reality, the latter seems improbable.
An unwashed member of the warrior caste would not have been received as a guest by such famous houses as HondaOgasawara and Hosokawa.
These and many other details are likely embellishments that were added to his legend, or misinterpretations of literature describing him. The literature leaves one unsure of his father's fate, but he may have died at the hands of one of Musashi's later adversaries, who was punished or even killed for treating Musashi's father badly.
This, however, is uncertain, as there are no exact details of Musashi's life, since Musashi's only writings are those related to strategy and technique.
In any case, the name seems fitting, particularly when comparing the level of mastery of weaponry - both being able to masterfully use nine or more weapons. Ichijoji Sagarimatsu, Location of the battle between Musashi and the Yoshioka school. It is said that he may have studied at the Yoshioka ryu schoolwhich was also said to be a school Musashi defeated single-handedly during his later years, although this is uncertain.
The main source of the duel is the Hyoho senshi denki "Anecdotes about the Deceased Master".
The Lone Samurai: The Life of Miyamoto Musashi
Summarized, its account goes as follows:. InMusashi was 13, and Arima Kihei, who was travelling to hone his art, posted a biography challenge in Hirafuku-mura. Musashi wrote his name on the challenge. A messenger came to Dorin's temple, where Musashi was staying, to inform Musashi that his duel had been accepted by Kihei.
Dorin was shocked by this, and tried to beg off in Musashi's name, but when he asked Kihei to drop the duel, he was adamant that the only way Kihei's honor could be cleared was if Musashi apologized to him when the duel was scheduled. So when the time set for the duel arrived, the monk began apologizing for Musashi, who merely leaped into the ring with a piece of wood shaped like a sword, shouting a challenge to Kihei.
Kihei attacked with a wakizashi, but Musashi threw Kihei, and while Kihei tried to get up, Musashi struck him between the eyes and then beat him to death.
The duel is odd for a number of reasons, not biography of which is why Musashi was permitted to duel Arima, whether the apology was a ruse, and why Arima was there in the first place. Inthree years later, Musashi left his village, apparently at the age of 15 according to the Tosakushi"the registry of the Sakushu region", although the Tanji Hokin hikki says he was 16 years old in . His family possessions such as furniture, weapons, genealogy, and other records were left with his sister and her husband, one Hirao Yoemon.
He spent his time travelling and engaging in duels, such as with an adept called Akiyama from the Tajima province. Ina war began between the Toyotomi and Tokugawa. Musashi apparently fought on the side of the Toyotomi's "Army of the West", as the Shinmen clan to which his family owed allegiance had allied with them.
Specifically, he participated in the attempt to take Fushimi castle by assault in Julyin the defense of the besieged Gifu castle in August of the same year, and finally in the famed Battle of Sekigahara.
Some doubt has been cast on this final battle, as the Hyoho senshi denki has Musashi saying he is "no lord's vassal" and refusing to fight with his father in Lord Ukita's battalion in the battle. Omitting the Battle of Sekigahara from the list of Musashi's battles would seem to contradict the Go rin no sho' s statement that Musashi fought in six battles, however. It has been suggested that Musashi fled as well, and spent some biography training on Mt.
After the Battle of Sekigahara, Musashi disappears from the records; the next mention of him has him arriving in Kyoto at the age of 20 or 21where he famously began a series of duels against the Yoshioka school. Musashi's father had fought against an adept of the Yoshioka school in his youth, receiving the title of "Best in Japan" as mentioned earlier. Legendarily, these eight schools were founded by eight monks taught by a nigh-mythical martial artist resident on the sacred mountain Kurama.
At some point the Yoshioka family also began to make a name for itself not merely in the art of the sword but also in the textile business and for a dye peculiar to them.
They gave up teaching swordsmanship in when they were in the Army of the West against Tokugawa Ieyasuin the Battle of Osakawhich they lost.
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But inwhen Musashi began dueling them, they were still preeminent. Kihei attacked with a wakizashibut Musashi threw Kihei, and when Kihei tried to get up, Musashi struck him between the eyes and then beat him to death. InMusashi left his village, apparently at the age of 15 according to the Tosakushi, "the registry of the Sakushu region," although the Tanji Hokin hikki says he was 16 years old in His family possessions, furniture, weapons, genealogy, and other records were left with his sister and her husband, Hirao Yoemon.
Musashi traveled around the country engaging in duels, such as one with an adept called Akiyama from the Tajima province. In a war began between the Toyotomi and Tokugawa.
Musashi apparently fought on the side of the Toyotomi's "Army of the West," because the Shinmen clan to which his family owed allegiance had allied with them. He participated in the assault on Fushimi Castle in Julyin the defense of the besieged Gifu Castle in August of the biography year, and finally in the famed Battle of Sekigahara.
Some doubt has been cast on his participation in the biography battle, as the Hyoho Senshi Denki has Musashi saying he is "no lord's vassal" and refusing to fight with his father in Lord Ukita's battalion in the battle.
Omitting the Battle of Sekigahara from the list of Musashi's battles, however, would contradict the Go Rin no Sho's claim that Musashi fought in six battles.
It has been suggested that Musashi fled as well, and spent some time training on Mt.Musashi meet Yagyu Munenori
At the age of twenty, he arrived in Kyoto, where he began a famous series of duels against the Yoshioka School. Musashi's father had defeated an adept of the Yoshioka School in his youth, receiving the title of "Best in Japan.
At some point the Yoshioka family also began to make a name for itself not merely in the art of the sword but also in the textile business, for a special dye that they produced.
They gave up teaching swordsmanship in when the Army of the West, of which they were a part, was defeated by Tokugawa Ieyasuin the Battle of Osaka. Inbiography Musashi began dueling them, they were still preeminent. There are various accounts of the duels; the Yoshioka family documents claim that there was only one, against Yoshioka Kenpo, which Musashi lost. Musashi challenged Yoshioka Seijuro, master of the Yoshioka School, to a duel. Seijuro accepted, and they agreed to a duel outside Rendaji Temple on March 8, Musashi arrived late, greatly irritating Seijuro.
They faced off, and Musashi struck a single blow, according to their agreement. This blow struck Seijuro on the left shoulder, knocking him out, and crippling his left arm. He apparently passed on the leadership of the school to his equally accomplished brother, Yoshioka Denshichiro, who promptly challenged Musashi to get revenge.
The duel took place either outside Kyoto or in a temple called Sanjusangen-do. Denshichiro wielded a staff reinforced with steel rings or possibly with a ball-and-chain attachedand Musashi arrived late a second time. Musashi disarmed Denshichiro and defeated him. This second victory outraged the Yoshioka clan, whose head was now the twelve-year-old Yoshioka Matashichiro. They assembled a force of archers and swordsmen, and challenged Musashi to a duel outside Kyoto, near Ichijoji temple. This time Musashi came to the temple hours early.
From his hiding place Musashi ambushed the force, killing Matashichiro, and escaping under attack from dozens of his supporters. With the death of Matashichiro, that branch of the Yoshioka School was destroyed. After Musashi left Kyoto, some sources recount that he traveled to Hozoin in Nara, to duel with and learn from the monks there, widely known as experts with biography weapons.
There he settled down at Enkoji Temple in Banshu, where he taught the head monk Tada Hanzaburo's brother. From toMusashi traveled extensively all over Japan in Musha-Shugyoa warrior pilgrimage during which he honed his skills with duels.
Musashi was said to have used a bokken or bokuto wooden sword as his weapon, and such was his mastery of strategy that Musashi did not care which weapon his opponent was using. A document dated November 5,purporting to be a transmission by Miyamoto Munisai of his teachings, suggests that Munisai lived at least until this date.
InMusashi departed Nara for Edo, in the meanwhile dueling and killing a practitioner of kusari gama a scythe and biography with with a long iron chain and a weight connected to the end of the wooden handle named Shishido Baiken. Musashi is said to have fought over 60 duels and was never defeated, although this is a conservative estimate, probably not accounting for deaths by his hand in major battles. InMusashi began practicing zazen Zen meditation at the Myoshinji Temple, where he met Nagaoka Sado, vassal to Lord Hosokawa Tadaoki a powerful lord who had received the fief of northern Kyushu after the Battle of Sekigahara.
Munisai had moved to northern Kyushu and became Tadaoki's teacher, and he may have introduced the two. Nagaoka proposed a duel with a certain adept named Sasaki Kojiro. This duel may have been politically motivated to consolidate Tadaoki's control over his fief. On April 14,at the age of 28, Musashi had his most famous duel with Sasaki Kojiro, who wielded a nodachi a type of long two-handed sword.
Musashi came to the appointed place, the remote island of Funajima, north of Kyushu, late and unkempt. The duel was short and Musashi killed his opponent with a bokken that he had fashioned from an oar to be longer than the nodachian impressive biography by the standards of any samurai or swordsman. Musashi's late arrival is still a subject of controversy. Sasaki's outraged supporters thought it was dishonorable and disrespectful, while others thought it was a fair way to unnerve his opponent.
Another theory is that Musashi timed the hour of his arrival to match the turning of the tide. The tide carried him to the island, and then turned by the time the fight ended. After his victory, Musashi immediately jumped back into his boat and his flight from Sasaki's vengeful allies was helped by the turning tide. The real name of Sasaki Kojiro is unknown, and nothing is known about his life.
InMusashi participated in the war between the Toyotomi and the Tokugawa clans. The war broke out because Ieyasu saw the Toyotomi family as a threat to his rule of Japan; most scholars believe that, as in the previous war, Musashi fought on the Toyotomi side.
Osaka Castle was the center of the battle. Some reports even say that Musashi entered into a duel with Ieyasu, but was recruited to the Tokugawa biography when Ieyasu sensed his own defeat was at hand. The film Shogun's Samurai shows him as a master of intrigue, repeatedly using tactics such as assassination to secure the post of Shogun for Tokugawa Iemitsu when Iemitsu and his brother Tadanaga vied for the title.
The same film also shows Munenori ordering the ruthless slaughter of his own biographies when they become a potential obstacle. In other movies and television shows he is shown as having a bitter rivalry with legendary samurai Miyamoto Musashiand being willing to stoop to underhanded tactics to attempt to kill Musashi. In Onimusha 's latest edition, Onimusha: Dawn of Dreams, Munenori appears with an eye patch, which conceals his powerful demon eye, and a pet crow.
Munenori hates everything having to do with Jubei of Onimusha 2, who is his father, since he despises him for the death of his mother. It is revealed that his Demon Eye was actually his mother's eye and she gave it to him when she died in order to save him.
This Munenori is a servant of the evil Hideyoshi Toyotomi. There are no current reliable sources outside the Shinto Muso Ryu tradition to confirm that this second duel took place. Musashi is said to have fought over 60 duels and was never defeated, although this is a conservative estimate, most likely not accounting for deaths by his hand in major battles. Tokitsu believes that the duel was politically motivated, a matter of consolidating Tadaoki's control over his fief. The duel was short. Musashi killed his opponent with a bokken that legend says he had carved from an oar used on the boat that carried him to the island.
Musashi's late arrival is controversial.
Sasaki's outraged supporters thought it was dishonorable and disrespectful, while Musashi's supporters thought it was a fair way to unnerve his opponent.
Another theory is that Musashi timed the hour of his arrival to match the turning of the tide. The tide carried him to the island. After his victory, Musashi immediately jumped back in his boat and his flight from Sasaki's vengeful allies was helped by the turning of the tide. Another theory states he waited for the sun to get in the right position. After he dodged a blow, Sasaki was blinded by the sun.
In —, Musashi participated in the war between the Toyotomi and the Tokugawa. The war had broken out because Tokugawa Ieyasu saw the Toyotomi family as a threat to his rule of Japan; most scholars believe that, as in the previous war, Musashi fought on the Toyotomi side.
Osaka Castle was the central place of biography. The first battle the Winter Battle of Osaka; Musashi's fourth battle ended in a truce. Some reports go so far as to say that Musashi entered a duel with Ieyasu, but was recruited after Ieyasu sensed his defeat was at hand.
This may seem unlikely since Ieyasu was in his 70s and was in poor health already, but it remains unknown how Musashi came into Ieyasu's good graces. In his later years, Ogasawara and Hosokawa supported Musashi greatly — an atypical course of action for these Tokugawa loyalists, if Musashi had indeed fought on behalf of the Toyotomi. He helped construct Akashi Castle and in to lay out the organization of the town of Himeji.
He also taught martial arts during his stay, specializing in instruction in the art of shuriken -throwing. During this period of biography, he adopted a son. InMusashi defeated Miyake Gunbei and three other adepts of the Togun-ryu in front of the lord of Himeji; it was after this victory that he helped plan Himeji.
The school's central idea is given as training to use the twin swords of the samurai as effectively as a combination of sword and jutte. Possibly this prompted Musashi to leave, embarking on a new series of travels, winding up in Edo inwhere he became friends with the Confucian scholar Hayashi Razanwho was one of the Shogun's advisors. The two then traveled, eventually stopping in Osaka. InMiyamoto Mikinosuke, following the custom of junshicommitted seppuku because of the death of his lord. In this year, Miyamoto Iori entered Lord Ogasawara's service. Musashi's attempt to become a vassal to the lord of Owarilike other such attempts, failed.
InMusashi began to travel again. Musashi, however was reputedly injured by a thrown rock while scouting in the front line, and was thus unnoticed. Musashi would officially become the retainer of the Hosokowa lords of Kumamoto in The Niten Ki records "[he] received from Lord Tadatoshi: InMusashi suffered attacks of neuralgiaforeshadowing his future ill-health.
He finished it in the second month of On the twelfth of the fifth month, sensing his impending death, Musashi bequeathed his worldly possessions, after giving his manuscript copy of The Book of Five Rings to the younger brother of Terao Magonojo, his closest disciple. The Hyoho senshi denki described his passing:. At the moment of his death, he had himself raised up.
He had his belt tightened and his wakizashi put in it. He seated himself with one knee vertically raised, holding the sword with his left hand and a cane in his right hand. He died in this posture, at the age of sixty-two. The principal vassals of Lord Hosokawa and the other officers gathered, and they painstakingly carried out the ceremony. Then they set up a tomb on Mount Iwato on the order of the lord. Miyamoto Musashi was not killed in combat, he died of what is believed to be thoracic cancer. His body was interred in armor within the village of Yuge, near the main road near Mount Iwato, facing the direction the Hosokawas would travel to Edo; his hair was buried on Mount Iwato itself.
His grave is not there, but about 45 minutes away, to the east and on the other side of Kumamoto, in the Musashizuka area.
Some of his biographies were given to Mimasaka so that he could be buried in part with his parents. The Mimasaka graves are located in the precincts of Musashi Shrine. Nine years later, a major source about his life — a monument with a funereal eulogy to Musashi — was erected in Kokura by Miyamoto Iori; this biography was called the Kokura hibun. In this technique, the swordsman uses both a large sword, and a "companion sword" at the same time, such as a katana with a wakizashi.
The two-handed movements of temple drummers may have inspired him, although it could be that the technique was forged through Musashi's combat experience. Jutte techniques were taught to him by his father — the jutte was often used in battle paired with a sword; the jutte would parry and neutralize the weapon of the enemy while the sword struck or the practitioner grappled with the enemy. Musashi was also an expert in throwing weapons. He frequently threw his short sword, and Kenji Tokitsu believes that shuriken methods for the wakizashi were the Niten Ichi Ryu's secret techniques.
Musashi spent many years studying Buddhism and swordsmanship.