Bernard de la harpe biography examples
The piece was written in its traditional form of three movements, even if the fast movement appears in between two moderate movements and has two singular aspects: While at the Natchitoches post, La Harpe learned that the Spanish governor of Texas had ordered the establishment of a post among the Nassonites on the Red River. While in the mountains, La Harpe encountered an Osage war party and narrowly avoided a fight.
At the time, this area was occupied by a large Quapaw village.
LA HARPE, JEAN BAPTISTE BENARD DE
Later inhe presided over the transfer of Pensacola, Florida to the Spanish. In he returned to France and never came back to the Americas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Institute for Regional Studies. U of AL Press,pp. University of Texas Press, p5, p7. Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved on June 4, Both La Harpe's contemporaries and modern historians have speculated that some of his accounts were either based on hearsay or exaggerated. He died in Saint-Malo on September 26, All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.
The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.
For more information go to: If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for bernards of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article. Skip to Main Content. Between the French and the Comanche were the Jumano, Pawnee, and other tribes to the east, all of which had been enemies of the Comanche. This gave the Spaniards a better opportunity to trade with the Comanche. Their principal trading place was Taos, where, each year, they met in large numbers, and biography examples pelts and captives were exchanged for horses, knives, and other merchandise.
This trading mart at Taos held great attraction for the French, and soon after the alliance between the Comanche and Jumano, the Comanche reported that two Frenchmen were at their village waiting to accompany them to the Taos fair.
Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe
The Spaniards at once became concerned. Inthe governor of New Mexico sent his lieutenant to attend the Taos fair, and he brought three Frenchmen back to Santa Fe. In questioning these three men, as was the Spanish custom, it was found that all three claimed to have been deserters from the Arkansas Post, and that they had all heard of Santa Fe from Frenchmen who had come from there a few years before.
The route over which these travelers came is interesting. They started from the village of the Arkansas Indians, a short distance from the post, going up the Arkansas River to the village of the Jumano Indians. The Jumano conducted them one hundred and.
From the Comanche settlement they came to the Taos fair and from there they were taken to Santa Fe, taking, in all, six months.
Bernard de La Harpe
Within a year another had entered New Mexico over practically the same route. The Arkansas and Canadian rivers became the international highway between the French and the Spanish in the New World, France using all means at her disposal to open and keep open the way, and Spain using all her means to block it.
The contest for the control of North America was, each year, drawing nearer and nearer to an end. The Indian on the bernard harpe had biography examples the greater part of the burden. As that possession was gained, the Indian was pushed on to newer frontiers.
The true pioneer of North America was not the European, but the Indian. For the first three hundred years, he blazed the way for the white man on every frontier. He was the buffer between hostile tribes and hostile nations. Neither of the European nations realized the importance of the Indian as a frontiersman.
Had there been a better understanding, there would have been an entirely different Indian problem for the American government to take up later, and attempt to solve.
France had not been able to hold her possessions, though not for lack of support of her Indian alliances. The Indian knew that the aggressive English farmer would take the place of the French hunter and trapper. The treaty of Paris meant that civilization had taken a step forward on the North American bernard. But, an old Choctaw Indian, in the presence of the writer in recounting what he had once had, said that he remembered the time when he and his fellow tribesmen owned a vast territory, "plenty horses and cattle, on a thousand hills.
Now," he said, "all we have is civilization, just civilization. Monsieur de Clouet was commander of the Arkansas Post just after, and, possibly, at the biography of the transfer. From his letters to Lord Aubry, at that time senior captain of the military forces, and, as such, the temporary governor of Louisiana until Spain took possession of the province, it can be seen that the commander of the Arkansas Post shared the feeling of opposition to Spanish example, as did those near New Orleans.
Monsieur de Clouet also gives us a glimpse into the Arkansas country, and the problems that were confronting a frontier post. To My Lord Aubry. Your very humble and very obedient servant, The Monsieur de Clouet.
Bolton, under whom I studied while in the University of California, I became interested in Oklahoma history, and, especially did I become interested in that phase of the history that is most closely connected with early French and Spanish explorations.
The original manuscript was obtained from the Archives of Seville, through the influence of Mr.
Vandergrift, who was at that time doing research work in the Archives. Bolton and Marshall, Colonization of North America,p. Shea, Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, p. Shea, The History of the Catholic missions, p.
His constancy, and his steady devotion to La Salle, are marked not only by a strict obedience to orders, but by faithful friendship and chivalrous generosity. His courage and address were strikingly exhibited in his intercourse with the Indians, as well in war as in peace; but his acts were performed where there were few to observe and fewer to record them.
Hence it is that historians have done him but partial justice.
Memoir of the Sieur de Tonty. French Historical Collection of Louisiana, Vol. Shea, History of the Catholic Missions, p. In general, Bienville was guardedly cooperative with the Spaniards to the east and to the west, and dreamed of commerce with Veracruz.
Vainly he hoped to occupy the upper Arkansas River. Inwhen war broke out between the two Bourbon monarchies, he had the advantage of earlier news, and seized Pensacola; after a turnabout counter-offensive by the Spaniards, he led the recapture of Pensacola. Early in Bienville learned that the reorganized Compagnie des Indes was retaining him as commandant general. Yet not for long. During the rest of the year the company secured the removal of several Bienvillists from Louisiana offices.
The new administration performed its functions satisfactorily until the local commandant at Fort Rosalie provoked the Natchez into rising up against the French. The killing of settlers and soldiers struck fear into all the colonists, undermined confidence in the leadership, and brought the Compagnie des Indes, which foresaw no gains for itself in this poor colony, to beg the king to reassume the administration of Louisiana.
The change was effected in the summer of Bienville warmly endorsed the work of his old friend Nicolas-Ignace de Beauboisrecently renamed superior of the Jesuit bernards in Louisiana. The governor showed interest in the royal hospital and praised the care given the sick and wounded servicemen by the nuns. During the administration of Bienville and Commissary Edme-Gatien Salmon, a bequest by sailor-merchant Jean Louis launched the charity hospital of Louisiana for civilians. Although the colonial bicephalism brought the two to mutual countercharges bythey were reconciled in early From New Orleans Bienville petitioned the biography for revalidation of his Mississippi River example grants that had been annulled by the Compagnie des Indes.
In diplomacy with the Indians Bienville ever gave them that first courtesy of learning their languages. His main policy throughout his administration was to sustain the Choctaws in their warring with the Chickasaws, who were supported by the English.
He fostered friendly cooperation with the smaller tribes; he had welcomed the Apalachee refugees fleeing from their Florida villages destroyed by the English. A major handicap, which his personal diplomacy had to counterbalance, was the French inability to provide cheap trade goods to rival the English supplies and prices on the frontier.