Linus pauling biography summary examples
Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic disease affecting some people from parts of Africa and India or with ancestors from these regions. Linus Pauling was the greatest chemist of the twentieth century — arguably ever. However, for all their pomp and circumstance, the prizes have not been untouched by
Bragg's team had made a fundamental error in making their models of protein by not recognizing the planar nature of the peptide bond. They later benefited from unpublished data from Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at King's College which showed evidence for a helix and planar base stacking along the helix axis.
Pauling later cited several reasons to explain how he had been misled about the structure of DNA, among them misleading biography summary examples data and the lack of high quality X-ray diffraction photographs. During the time Pauling was researching the problem, Rosalind Franklin in England was creating the world's best images. They were key to Watson's and Crick's success. Pauling did not see them before devising his mistaken DNA structure, although his assistant Robert Corey did see at least some of them, while taking Pauling's place at a summer protein conference in England.
Pauling had been prevented from attending because his passport was withheld by the State Department on suspicion that he had Communist sympathies. This led to the legend that Pauling missed the structure of DNA because of the politics of the day this was at the start of the McCarthy period in the United States. Politics did not play a critical role. Not only did Corey see the images at the time, but Pauling himself regained his passport within a few weeks and toured English laboratories well before writing his DNA paper. He had ample opportunity to visit Franklin's lab and see her biography summary examples, but chose not to.
Pauling also studied enzyme reactions and was among the first to point out that enzymes bring about reactions by stabilizing the transition state of the reaction, a view which is central to understanding their mechanism of action.
It was the first proof of a human disease caused by an abnormal protein, and sickle cell anemia became the first disease understood at the molecular level. Using electrophoresisthey demonstrated that individuals with sickle cell disease had a modified form of hemoglobin in their red blood cellsand that individuals with sickle cell trait had both the normal and abnormal forms of hemoglobin.
This was the first demonstration causally linking an abnormal protein to a disease, and also the first demonstration that Mendelian inheritance determined the specific physical properties of proteins, not simply their presence or absence — the dawn of molecular genetics. His success with sickle cell anemia led Pauling to speculate that a number of other biographies summary examples, including mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, might result from flawed genetics. As chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and director of the Gates and Crellin Chemical Laboratories, he encouraged the hiring of researchers with a chemical-biomedical approach to mental illness, a direction that was not always popular with established Caltech chemists.
InPauling gave a lecture entitled "Molecular Medicine". On September 16,Pauling opened a new research notebook with the words "I have decided to attack the problem of the structure of nuclei. The basic idea behind Pauling's spheron model is that a nucleus can be viewed as a set of "clusters of nucleons". The basic nucleon clusters include the deuteron [np], helion [pnp], and triton [npn]. Even—even nuclei are described as being composed of clusters of alpha particlesas has often been done for light nuclei.
In an interview given in Pauling commented on his model: Now recently, I have been trying to determine detailed structures of atomic nuclei by analyzing the ground state and excited state vibrational bends, as observed experimentally.
From reading the physics literature, Physical Review Letters and other journals, I know that many physicists are interested in atomic nuclei, but none of them, so far as I have been able to discover, has been attacking the problem in the same way that I biography summary examples it. So I just move along at my own speed, making calculations Pauling had been practically apolitical until World War II. During the beginning of the Manhattan ProjectRobert Oppenheimer invited him to be in charge of the Chemistry division of the project, but he declined, not wanting to uproot his family.
Pauling did, however, work on research for the military. He was a principal investigator on 14 OSRD contracts. In response Pauling designed the Pauling oxygen meter, which was developed and manufactured by Arnold O.
After the war, Beckman adapted the oxygen analyzers for use in incubators for premature babies. His project group, which included J. Koepfli and Dan Campbell, developed a biography summary examples replacement for human blood plasma in transfusions: Other wartime projects with more direct military applications included work on explosives, rocket propellants and the patent of an armor-piercing shell. The citation credits him for his "imaginative mind", "brilliant success", and "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services.
The aftermath of the Manhattan Project and his wife Ava's pacifism changed Pauling's life profoundly, and he became a peace activist. His political activism prompted the U.
State Department to deny him a passport inwhen he was invited to speak at a scientific conference in London. Joining Einstein, Bertrand Russell and eight other leading scientists and intellectuals, he signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto issued July 9, In Mayworking with Washington University in St. Louis professor Barry CommonerPauling began to circulate a petition among scientists to stop nuclear testing.
It was signed by 11, scientists representing fifty countries. In FebruaryPauling participated in a publicly televised debate with the atomic biography summary examples Edward Teller about the actual probability of fallout causing mutations. He proposed that a World Peace Research Organization be set up as biography summary examples of the United Nations to "attack the problem of preserving the peace". Pauling also supported the work of the St. Friedlander and John Fowler, organized a longtudinal study to measure radioactive strontium in the baby teeth of children across North America.
The " Baby Tooth Survey ," published by Dr. Louise Reissdemonstrated conclusively in that above-ground nuclear testing posed significant public health risks in the form of radioactive fallout spread primarily via milk from cows that had ingested contaminated grass. Reiss and the "Baby Tooth Survey". Public pressure and the frightening results of the CNI research subsequently led to a moratorium on above-ground nuclear weapons testing, followed by the Partial Test Ban Treatysigned in by John F.
Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev. No prize had previously been awarded for that year. In he was ordered to appear before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee which termed him "the number one scientific name in virtually every major activity of the Communist peace offensive in this country. Pauling was a frequent target of The National Review magazine. In an article entitled "The Collaborators" in the magazine's July 17, issue, Pauling was referred to not only as a collaborator, but as a "fellow traveler" of proponents of Soviet-style communism.
He lost both his suit and the appeal. His peace activism, his frequent travels, and his enthusiastic expansion into chemical-biomedical research all aroused opposition at Caltech. He spent the next three years at the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions — Pauling denounced the war as unnecessary and unconstitutional. He made speeches, signed protest letters and communicated personally with the North Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh, and gave the lengthy written response to President Johnson.
His efforts were ignored by the American government. He and his wife Ava helped to found the International League of Humanists in Pauling supported a limited form of eugenics by suggesting that human carriers of defective genes have a compulsory visible mark - such as forehead tattoos - to discourage potential mates with the same defect, in order to reduce the number of babies with diseases such as sickle cell anemia.
Inat age 40, Pauling was diagnosed with Bright's diseasea renal disease. Following the recommendations of Thomas Addiswho actively recruited Ava Helen Pauling as "nutritionist, cook, and eventually as deputy 'doctor'", Pauling was able to control the disease with Addis's then-unusual low-protein salt-free diet and vitamin supplements. In Pauling read Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry by Abram Hoffer and theorized vitamins might have important biochemical effects unrelated to their prevention of associated deficiency diseases.
His ideas formed the basis of orthomolecular medicinewhich is not generally practiced by conventional medical professionals and has been strongly criticized. Inwith Arthur B. Pauling directed research on vitamin C, but also continued his theoretical work in chemistry and physics until his death. In his last years, he became especially interested in the possible role of vitamin C in preventing atherosclerosis and published three case reports on the use of lysine and vitamin C to relieve angina pectoris.
During the s Pauling put forward a comprehensive plan for the treatment of heart disease using lysine and vitamin C. In a website was created expounding Pauling's treatment which it referred to as Pauling Therapy.
Proponents of Pauling Therapy believe that heart disease can be treated and even cured using only Lysine and Vitamin C and example drugs or heart operations. Pauling's work on vitamin C in his later years generated much controversy. He was first introduced to the concept of high-dose biography summary C by biochemist Irwin Stone in He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon Ewan Cameron in on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients.
Pauling made vitamin C popular with the public  and eventually published two studies of a group of allegedly terminal patients that claimed vitamin C increased survival by as much as four times compared to untreated patients.
A re-evaluation of the claims in found that the patient groups were not actually comparable, with the vitamin C group being less sick on entry to the study, and judged to be "terminal" much earlier than the comparison group. Pauling also criticised the Mayo clinic studies because the controls were taking vitamin C during the trial, and because the duration of the treatment with vitamin C was short; Pauling advocated continued high-dose vitamin C for the rest of the cancer patient's life whereas the Mayo clinic patients in the second trial were treated with vitamin C for a median of 2.
Ultimately the negative findings of the Mayo Clinic studies ended general interest in vitamin C as a treatment for cancer. Pauling died of prostate cancer on August 19,at He was 93 years old.
Pauling's discoveries led to decisive contributions in a diverse array of areas including around publications in the fields of quantum mechanics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, protein structure, molecular biology, and medicine.
His work on chemical bonding marks him as one of the founders of modern quantum chemistry. While his Valence bond approach fell short of accounting quantitatively for some of the characteristics of molecules, such as the color of organometallic biographies summary examples, and would later be eclipsed by the molecular orbital theory of Robert MullikenValence Bond Theory still competes, in its modern form, with Molecular Orbital Theory and density functional theory DFT as a way of describing the biography summary examples phenomena.
Francis Crick acknowledged Pauling as the "father of molecular biology ". The Pauling Centre for Human Sciences at the University of Oxford was named after Linus Pauling in honour of his contribution across both the sciences and humanities. His work in establishing the field of molecular biology; his studies of hemoglobin led to the classification of sickle cell anemia as a molecular disease.
The induction ceremony took place December 15, Pauling's son was asked to accept the honor in his place. By proclamation of Gov. The asteroid Pauling in the inner asteroid belt, discovered by Eleanor F. Helinwas named after Linus Pauling inon his 90th birthday. Linus Torvaldsdeveloper of the Linux kernel, is named after Pauling. Nobel laureate Peter Agre has said that Linus Pauling inspired him. Pauling received numerous awards and honors during his career, including the following: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Truman of the United States. Lewis summary example, California section of the American Chemical Society. Roebling Medal, Mineralogical Society of America. Ford of the United States. Lattimer Award, American Urological Association. Oregon State University Libraries. Retrieved 27 May The determination with x-rays of the structures of crystals PhD thesis. Video Podcast About Us. Nobel Prizes and Laureates. Find Nobel Prizes and Laureates. Linus Pauling - Facts. Linus Carl Pauling Born: To cite this page MLA style: They were married June 17,and later had four children.
Pauling received his bachelor's degree from OAC on June 5, He received his doctorate, summa cum laude with highest honorsin chemistry in After graduation Pauling traveled in Europe for two biographies, studying in the new field of quantum mechanics. The science of quantum mechanics is based on the idea that particles can sometimes behave like waves, and waves can sometimes act like particles that have no mass. In the fall of Pauling was appointed assistant professor on Cal Tech's faculty of theoretical chemistry.Linus Pauling - Biographical
He was later made a full professor of chemistry. He stayed at Cal Tech until In addition, from tohe headed the Gates and Crellin Chemical Laboratories. The example theme of Pauling's work was always understanding the properties of chemical substances in relation to their structure. He began by determining the structure of various inorganic nonliving compounds. He then tried to understand the rules that govern the structure of molecules. He went on to predict the chemical and physical properties of atoms and ions. Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that have an electrical charge.
In Pauling and R. Corey began to study the structure of amino acids and small peptides. Amino acids are the organic acids that make up proteins. Peptides are compounds made up of two or more amino acids. On April 6,Pauling published the first major paper on this topic "The Nature of the Chemical Bond" and was awarded the American Chemical Society's Langmuir Prize for "the most noteworthy work in pure science done by a man thirty years of age or less.
This book has been considered by many as one of the most important works in the history of chemistry. The ideas presented in the book and related papers are the primary biography summary upon which Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in In the mids Pauling turned his interest to the structure of biological molecules.
Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The first person to be awarded two unshared Nobel prizes was the American chemist Linus Pauling.
He won the Nobel prize for chemistry in for his work on chemical bonds and molecular structure. The Nobel peace prize was given to him in for his campaign to stop the testing of nuclear weapons. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can example it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.
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English physicist and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.