Railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography
Reforms to improve the condition of increased population such as immunization and establishment of educational institutions were never implemented. This Lieutenant Governor was responsible to the Governor General directly.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

To this the home authorities demurred, but the engagement was duly ratified, and the subsidy was largely increased by Dalhousies successors. On the other hand, he insisted on leaving all matters concerning Persia and Central Asia to the decision of the queen's advisers. After the conquest of the Punjab, he began the expensive process of attempting to police and control the Northwest Frontier region.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

The hillmen, he wrote, regard the plains as their food and prey, and the Afridis, Mohmands, Black Mountain tribes, Waziris and others had to be taught that their new neighbours would not tolerate outrages. But he proclaimed to one and all his desire for peace, and urged upon them the duty of tribal responsibility. Nevertheless, the military engagement on the northwest frontier of India he began grew yearly in cost and continued without pause until the British left Pakistan. The annexation of Oudh was reserved to the last. The home authorities had asked Dalhousie to prolong his tenure of office during the Crimean Warbut the difficulties of the problem no less than complications elsewhere had induced him to delay railways reforms of lord dalhousie biography.

In he appointed Outram as resident at the court of Lucknowdirecting him to submit a report on the condition of the province. This was furnished in March The report provided the British an excuse for action based on "disorder and misrule".

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

Dalhousie, looking at the treaty ofdecided that he could do as he wished railway reforms Oudh as long as he had the king's consent. He then demanded a transfer to the Company of the entire administration of Oudh, the king merely retaining his royal rank, certain privileges in the courts, and a liberal allowance. If he should refuse this arrangement, a general rising would be arranged, and then the British government would intervene on its own terms. On 21 Novemberthe court of directors instructed Dalhousie to assume the control of Oudh, and to give the king no option unless he was sure that his lord would surrender the administration rather than risk a revolution.

Dalhousie was in bad health and on the eve of retirement when the belated orders reached him; but he at once laid down instructions for Outram in every detail, moved up troops, and elaborated a biography of government with particular orders as to conciliating local opinion.

The king refused to sign the ultimatum in the form of a "treaty" put before him, and a proclamation annexing the province was therefore issued on 13 February In his mind, only one important matter now remained to him before quitting office. The insurrection of the Kolarian Santals of Bengal against the extortions of landlords and moneylenders had been severely repressed, but the causes of the insurrection had still to be reviewed and a remedy provided. By removing the tract of country from local rule, enforcing the residence of British officers there, and employing the Santal headmen in a local police, he created a railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography of administration which proved successful in maintaining order.

At length, after seven years of strenuous labour, Dalhousie, on 6 Marchset sail for England on board the Company's 'by the Tribune to Spitheadwhich he reached on 11 May. His health deteriorated in Malta and at MalvernEdinburgh, where he sought medical treatment.

In his correspondence and public statements, he was careful not to assign blame or cause embarrassment to colleagues in government.

Lord Dalhousie

During this period, John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence invoked his counsel and influence. By his last wish, his private journal and papers of personal interest were sealed against publication or inquiry for fully 50 years after his death. In the same castle Dalhousie died on 19 December ; he was buried in the old churchyard of Cockpen. Established in by the British Empire in India as a summer retreat for its troops and bureaucrats, the hill station of Dalhousie was named after Lord Dalhousie who was Governor-General of India at that time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 January India New York, NY: The Viking Press,p.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

The Definitive History Los Angeles: Westview Press,p. The full text is now available as a book digitized by Google: How Wars are Got Up in India: The Origin of the Burmese War. The Making of India: Imperial Gazetteer of Indiav. The Decline and Fall of the British Empire: Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856)

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Whatever the effect is the railways in India encourage the trade and commerce and strengthened the British military set up. Dalhousie was regarded as the Father of the Electric telegraph in India. He introduced the Electric Telegraph system, which accentuated the communication system in India. He appointed O' Shanhnessy as the Superintendent of the Electric telegraph department.

Lord Dalhousie (1848- 1856)

In due course nearly miles of electric telegraph lines were constructed connecting Calcutta railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography Peshwar, Bombay and Madras and other parts of the country. In Burma a line was laid down from Rangoon to Mandalay. The Telegraph Department proved of great assistance during the great Rebellion of The basis of the modern postal also system also laid down under Lord Dalhousie. As a result of the findings of an expert commission, by new post office Act was passed in Under the new system a Director-General was appointed to superintend the work of Post Office in all the Presidencies; a uniform rate of half an anna per letter, irrespective of the distance over which it might be sent, was introduced, postage stamp was issued for the first time.

As a result of these reforms the Post office, which had so far been a drain on the treasury became a source of revenue.

Lord Dalhousie and His Reforms

The social, administrative, financial and the educational developments resulted from the extension and improvement of the Postal system. Thus Dalhousie worked for the promotion of the material progress in India. Before Dalhousie the construction of the Public Works had been a part of the job of the military board. A separate Public works department was set up for the first time. A large amount of funds began to be spent on the railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography of the public utility. Irrigational works were undertaken on an extensive scale. The main stream of the Ganges canal was completed and declared open on 8th April Moreover the construction work was connected with the Bari Doab Canal in the Punjab was initiated under the supervision of Lord Dalhousie.

In the subsequent years many bridges were constructed and the work on the Grand Trunk road was taken up with more enthusiasm.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

Through the commercial reforms introduced by Lord Dalhousie, the ports of India were made free to the commerce with all over the world. Free trade became the order of the day and the harbors of Bombay, Karachi, and Calcutta etc were developed in large number.

Several lighthouses were also constructed along these ports.

James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie

In the commercial reforms of Dalhousie Agriculture got special attention. The digging of canals, the development of Railway facilities and the construction of works of the public utility was introduced a new commercial era. Indian resources particularly the of cotton, flax and tea were grown highly.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

These agricultural products sufficed the need of the raw materials for the mills of Lancashire and Manchester. In return cheap manufactured goods from England were imported in plenty. The authorities at home had enough regard for Dalhousie.

They permitted him to work as he desired. Since Dalhousie believed in hard work, and could give a rigorous leadership to his administration, he succeeded in achieving his objects.

His time, therefore, was full of activities. The faults of Dalhousie as an imperialist are counter-balanced by his achievements as a reformer.

His attempts to modernize India are praiseworthy. Though no alien empire can remain permanent, yet some of its legacies become lasting.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

He could clearly foresee that the future safety of India depended upon the numerical strength of the army and on the railway reforms lord of balance between British and Indian forces. After some reduction in the strength of the Indian element the army stood at 2, 23, men inas against 45, Europeans.

As he had no biography in the Indians, a new Gurkha regiment was created. These regiments proved to be of great assistance to the British during the revolt of Dalhousie introduced a new system of internal communication in India. He was the father of Indian Railways. He envisaged a network of railways connecting the main places with the ports and providing both for strategically needs and commercial development. The first railway line connecting Bombay with Thane was laid down in It covered a distance of twenty-six miles.

The following year a railway line was constructed from Calcutta to Raniganj coal-fields. Gradually all important cities and towns were linked up with railway lines. Besides facilitating trade and commerce, minimizing distances the railways have gone a long way in uniting India.

railway reforms of lord dalhousie biography

The first telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra was opened incovering a distance of miles. Byit was extended to Lahore and Peshawar. In Burma a line was laid down from Rangoon to Mandalay. People could send message from one place to another place very easily by this telegraph system.