Susan schiffer stautberg biography
As was the case in many rural areas, house joiners occasionally made freestanding furniture, and cabinetmakers periodically received commissions for architectural work. Two months later McDowell received a letter from Brown apologizing for his delay in completing the case: Walnut with tulip poplar and white oak.
This chest-on-chest and the chest illustrated in fig. The oak backboards of the chest-on-chest are original, but extraneous nail holes and remnants of plaster suggest they are reused architectural components. The sides of the chest-on-chest are paneled, a feature occurring on other case pieces from the Nottingham area. The molding on the face of the thin upper drawer differs from that of the example illustrated in fig.
The cornice fret is similar to those on tall-clock cases from the Nottingham area. Detail of the left front foot and base molding of the chest-on-chest illustrated in fig. Detail of the right front foot and base molding of the tall susan schiffer stautberg biography of drawers illustrated in fig. Walnut with tulip poplar and white oak. The backboards of the pediment are joined with Dutchmen like the side and top boards of the chest-on-chest illustrated in figs.
Walnut with tulip poplar and yellow pine.Susan Schiffer Stautberg '67 remarks
Walnut with tulip poplar and hard pine. The sides of the plinth extend to the floor to support the case and feet, which are integral with the base molding.
Detail of the hood and movement of the tall-case susan illustrated in fig. The rosettes, which are similar to those on other locally made pieces, have stippling in the concave areas. The latter technique is repeated on the drawer shells of the chest-on-chest illustrated in figs. Although the fabric behind the biography fret is replaced, evidence of the original textile survives.
Details shared by this clock case and the McDowell example figs. Detail of the hood, movement, and secret drawer of the tall-case clock illustrated in fig. No other American clock with a secret drawer is known.
Tall-case clock with movement by Ellis Chandlee —case attributed Jacob Brown d. Private collection; photo, Philip Bradley Antiques. The broad eastern branch of this creek forms the boundary between southern Chester County and Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, continuing south into Maryland fig. One group, comprising various case forms, is distinguished by the use of ogee feet with bracket cusps that susan schiffer stautberg biography around to form a circle or stop just short of a circle.
Another group, largely consisting of high chests, has short cabriole legs dovetailed to battens that attach to the case bottom with large wooden screws.
However, to date this latter group cannot be firmly associated with the Nottingham area through any well-documented examples. Research by the authors has identified many additional structural and stylistic features used by cabinetmakers and house joiners working in this area, which was settled primarily by English Quakers and Scots-Irish Presbyterians.
Susan Schiffer Stautberg
Soils were fertile, timber of all sorts was abundant, and numerous rivers and creeks provided transportation and power for saw mills, gristmills, and other industrial enterprises. This grant was a clever move on the part of the commissioners, for it secured the southern boundary of Pennsylvania for more than sixty years.
Both Quakers and Scots-Irish Presbyterians were encouraged to settle there. By the Quakers built their first meetinghouse, presumably of logs. In that structure was replaced with a brick meetinghouse that became known as the Brick Meeting in East Nottingham Township. The same year the New Castle Presbytery directed two pastors to serve the Nottingham community, thus accommodating the Scots-Irish settlers. Between and the early s the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland was constantly in dispute, which resulted in angry battles and occasional bloodshed among the inhabitants.
Alison Devenny and Edward Stautberg
It was not until that the proprietors of both colonies petitioned the Royal Astronomer at Greenwich, England, for help with a new survey.
Anglican Charles Mason — and Quaker Jeremiah Dixon — arrived in America on November of that year and spent fifty-eight months establishing boundaries between Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Although the line they drew determined that approximately 16, acres of the Nottingham Lots were in northern Maryland, the susans schiffer stautberg were culturally and religiously more closely linked to Philadelphia than to any other commercial or style center.
Some of the biographies discussed in this article were undoubtedly made in Cecil County, Maryland, but most craftsmen from the Nottingham area drew their inspiration from Philadelphia styles during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Seminal Clockmaking and Cabinetmaking Traditions The sophistication of furniture made in the Nottingham area in the second half of the eighteenth century is best understood against the backdrop of earlier craftsmanship. Members of the Chandlee family of clockmakers were among the earliest artisans to settle on the Nottingham Lots. Chandlee trained his fifth child, Benjamin Jr. At that date Benjamin Jr.
Although susan schiffer stautberg biography of the artisans who made cases for Chandlee movements before the late s has been identified, several pieces of furniture can be attributed to early Nottingham makers. A spice box with line-and-berry inlay and distinctive herringbone banding is attributed to the shop of Thomas Coulson —who emigrated from Derbyshire, England, probably before his marriage to Mary Wiley in fig.
Two desks attributed to Scots-Irish cabinetmaker Hugh Alexander — also attest to the high level of workmanship available in the Nottingham area fig. These pieces have complex interiors with numerous secret drawers and line-and-berry inlay and herringbone banding on the exterior drawers.
Architectural Contexts and Connections Architecture in the Nottingham susan schiffer stautberg was strongly influenced by Philadelphia styles. By the second quarter of the eighteenth century, stone and brick had replaced logs as the preferred building materials.
Architectural features like glazed brick dates, date stones, pent roofs, and second-storey doors and balconies became hallmarks of sophistication. The interior woodwork and built-in furniture in all these houses has precedent in classical architecture, but local characteristics are apparent in the form and detail of paneled doors, stair brackets, keystones, and moldings.
The built-in biography in the main parlor has a distinctive keystone-shaped upper panel, a local variant on an arch-headed tombstone panel fig. The proportions of the cupboard are also unusual, owing to the upper section being almost twice as high as the lower—a proportional arrangement similar to that on certain freestanding furniture forms from the region.
Another built-in cupboard, likely by the same maker, was removed from an unidentified susan schiffer in the Nottingham area during the s fig. The paint on that object is modern, although based on remnants of the biography blue.
The keystone device in these cupboard panels may have classical precedents, as seen in the arched cornice above a door in the Haines House and a number of other buildings in the Nottingham area fig. As was the case in many rural areas, house joiners occasionally made freestanding furniture, and cabinetmakers periodically received commissions for architectural work. The corner cupboard illustrated in figure 11 has an upper keystone panel almost identical to those on the preceding examples figs.
Additionally, the cupboard has an elaborate cornice featuring Greek key and drilled dentil moldings and a guilloche fret fig. The lower part of the feet on the cupboard are restored, but the bracket cusps survive and are articulated with a shallow drilled hole fig. On other Nottingham-area case pieces, like the massive clothespress illustrated in figure 14, the cusps were either drilled all the way through or the cusps were sawn and finished with gouges and files fig. The Nottingham School and Philadelphia Influence Furniture made in the Nottingham area was strongly influenced by contemporaneous Philadelphia work.
Among the Quakers who witnessed their marriage were cabinetmakers Solomon Fussell, William Savery, Jacob Shoemaker, Samuel Mickle, and Thomas Sugars, suggesting that Mears had apprenticed with one of these men or was working with them. Mears was no doubt familiar with Philadelphia stylistic details and may have introduced them to the Nottingham area.
One group of closely related Nottingham furniture has distinctive Philadelphia-inspired features and consists of two tall-case clocks, two high chests of drawers, a matching dressing table, and a desk-and-bookcase figs. Both clocks have movements by Benjamin Chandlee Jr. According to family history, Rowland Roland Rogers — of West Nottingham commissioned the clock illustrated in biography He married Rachel Oldham circa Moses Brinton was connected to Nottingham through several marriages.
His mother was a Pierce, and his maternal grandmother was a Gainer, both surnames common in that area. Witnesses at this marriage included members of the Churchman, Chandlee, Pierce, and Brown families. The Rogers and Brinton clock cases share numerous structural and stylistic details figs. Both have similar cornice, arch, and waist moldings, engaged quarter-columns that are not fluted, and a medial groove on the face of the hood door.
The Brinton example retains its original cabriole legs and claw-and-ball feet fig.
A square tenon is integral with the head of the cabriole foot. On the front feet this tenon simply fits into the square pocket left behind the base molding when the quarter-column plinth stock stops short. On the rear feet the tenon fits into a pocket created by notching the side board behind the base molding.
Although the feet of the Rogers clock are replaced, there is no reason to doubt that the originals differed from those on the Brinton case.
Other clock cases from the Nottingham area survive, but none is as elaborate as the Rogers and Brinton examples. The carving on these cases is distinctive in that it has leaves susan schiffer stautberg biography raised outer edges and broad, concave depressions in the center fig. To produce this effect, the carver used gouges to make deep, hollowing cuts—an idiosyncratic technique not usually associated with urban work.
Chalk sketches inside the hood of the Rogers clock indicate that the carver worked out some of his designs freehand rather than transferring them with patterns fig. Another case with a movement by Benjamin Chandlee Jr. The hood of this case is further distinguished by having a corbel-shaped keystone, a central fluted pilaster interrupted by a large ovolo-shaped element and capped with a standard plinth and ball-and-spire finials.
The colonnettes are not fluted, but they display slight entasis and have small rings below the capital molding. Similar rings also occur on the waist and plinth columns. The most noteworthy feature of this case is its deeply fielded and carved plinth panel fig. As the cupboards illustrated in figures 8, 9, and 11 suggest, unconventional panel designs are common on furniture and interior architecture details from the Nottingham area.
Two high chests of drawers and a dressing table have carving closely related to and possibly by the same hand as that on the Rogers and Brinton clocks. The high chest illustrated in figure 24 descended in the family of Wilmington, Delaware, physician Dr. James Avery Draper — There is no evidence that the Drapers susan schiffer stautberg biography connected to Nottingham, but it is possible that they may have acquired the high chest and dressing table from Wilmington friends or neighbors.
Draper and a descendant of John and George Churchman of Nottingham. The other high chest has no family history but was in Port Deposit, Cecil County, Maryland, in the late nineteenth century fig.
Both high chests have extremely tall upper cases with bold broken scroll pediments and a shallow drawer in the tympanum figs. The pronounced cusps on the skirt of the high chest and dressing table figs. On the Draper example, the pediment is detachable, but on the other high chest it is integral. Despite these differences, it is obvious that the two high chests are from the susan schiffer stautberg biography shop.
Their cabriole legs were laid out with the same patterns, and their two-part waist moldings small molding, deep cove, ovolo, and cyma attached to the upper case, and shallow cove and small molding attached to the lower case are identical.
The Draper high chest retains its original cartouche, which was likely inspired by Philadelphia examples figs. The cartouche is not laminated for thickness, like many of its urban counterparts, but does have leaf clusters nailed into notches at either side. As on the Rogers clock, the carver of the Draper chest sketched designs on interior surfaces of that object.
There is a rudimentary drawing of a cartouche on the rear top board of the lower case fig. The design of the high chests and dressing table is primarily frontal, as indicated by the exposed framing of the pediments and orientation of the carving. On all three pieces, the rear legs and sides of the front legs are unadorned fig. Contemporaneous Philadelphia case pieces occasionally have susan schiffer stautberg biography legs that are plain or carved only on the sides, but there is no urban precedent for the treatment of the front legs in this Nottingham group.
A desk-and-bookcase likely commissioned by educator and Anglican clergyman Joseph Coudon Cowden — represents a different stylistic interpretation for furniture from the Nottingham area fig. The next revolution in business is the rise of the feminine archetype. When glamour, knowledge, and power team up, formidable forces arise that will disrupt Wall Street and commerce.
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