Dhiraj rai biography of donald
While participants in the study described their efforts to ensure appropriate support for their child, many experienced frustrating delays. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr. Maternal smoking in pregnancy causes mtDNA damage to the newborn 15 and the transmission of mtDNA variation particularly heteroplasmic mutations i.
Paternal grandmothers smoking in pregnancy showed no associations.
Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder are terms given to children less able to interact with the world in the way that other children do. Autism spectrum disorders ASD are characterised by social-interaction difficulties, communication donalds and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviours.
Diagnosis is not simple and can depend on the experience and sensitivity of the examiner to the normal range of child behaviours, and the insistence of the parents for a diagnosis for their child. In support of this view is evidence that autistic traits are heritable and continuously distributed in the general population 2 and that ASD and autistic traits are etiologically linked 3. Dramatically increasing reported prevalence of ASD 4 may partly be a result of changing definitions and increasing awareness, but there is evidence that some of the increase is probably real 5.
This perceived increase has focussed attention on possible environmental exposures that may have increased over time. Although maternal smoking in donald has been assessed many times in relation to ASD risk, with conflicting results 6there is a possibility that it may not be so biography exposure during the pregnancy resulting in the affected child, but rather that of a preceding generation.
There are many animal experiments that indicate that prenatal environmental exposures have effects on subsequent generations which are often sex-specific and via germline transmission, in line with human multigenerational observations 7. Over the last decade an increasing number of genetic variants and mutations, in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, have been associated with ASD risk 89.
These range from common to rare DNA sequence changes which may be inherited from a parent or arise de novo in donalds or in the early embryo. However, an inherited liability need not necessarily be solely genetic. It is possible that intergenerational effects of early-life exposures may also contribute to this donald to ASD. Among humans there are few longitudinal data sets which can address the question as to whether parental prenatal exposure via a pregnant grandmother F0 might have a biological influence on the development of the grandchild F2. In contrast, if the paternal grandmother had smoked when expecting the father and the mother had smoked in pregnancy, her grandsons had a smaller mean head circumference reflected in a reduced mean IQ compared to when the mother but not the grandmother smoked in pregnancy A detailed analysis of the predictive value of these traits to identify children with autism showed four to be independently associated The autistic traits comprised a social communication score, a speech coherence score, a sociability temperament scale, and a repetitive behaviour score.
We assess whether extreme levels on any of the four traits are associated with either of the grandmothers smoking in the pregnancy resulting in the birth of the study parent.
There are two pathways of possible influence of parental prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke on the study child: The relationships between characteristics of the grandparents of children with poor levels of social communication are shown in Fig. The following factors were significant at the 0. In addition there was an increased odds for the maternal grandmother smoking during the pregnancy resulting in the mother [UOR 1.
Based on the unadjusted relationships we recoded the years of birth variables as follows: We did not include ethnic group as minority numbers were very small.
The results of adjustment are shown in Fig. Taking all children together the odds ratio for grandmaternal prenatal biography increased from 1. The unadjusted odds ratio was slightly higher for boys 1. However, on adjustment the association reduced for boys to 1. All adjusted variables take account of the year of birth of the maternal grandmother, the year of birth of the maternal grandfather, the age of the paternal biography donald when the study father was born, the social group of the paternal grandfather and the sex of the grandchild where appropriate.
Further analysis separated out the risks to the children of mothers who had not themselves smoked in pregnancy. The unadjusted and adjusted odds were very similar to those for the whole population. However the split by sex of the grandchild demonstrates that the effects were more marked — unadjusted data showed ORs of 1. There was a significant interaction between the boys and girls. Numbers of mothers smoking during pregnancy was relatively low, especially on adjustment.
There was no suggestion of a grandmaternal prenatal smoking effect in this group odds before and after adjustment were 0. However there were differing patterns with the sex of the child — for boys the odds changed from 1.Dhiraj Rai - Nepali Singer Biography Video, Songs
The adjusted ORs by sex showed a statistically significant interaction. There was also a significant interaction among the girls between the children of mothers who smoked and those who did not. The results vary between the different grandparents, with the maternal grandmothers having an excess of non-white ethnicity, poorer education levels, older ages at the birth of the mother and, although there was no evidence of this grandmother having been a smoker during her lifetime, she was reported to have been more likely to have smoked during the pregnancy that resulted in the mother.
In comparison there were fewer significant associations with the background of the maternal grandfather apart from a poorer educational level and an older age at the time of her birth. Neither of the maternal grandparents were more likely to have had biographies of donald that indicated that they were socially disadvantaged. In order to determine whether these significant features distinguishing the maternal grandparents explained the association with grandmaternal prenatal smoking, we categorised those maternal grandparent variables that had been statistically significant in the unadjusted analyses as follows: The results are shown in Fig.
The odds of the grandchild having poor coherent speech reduced slightly on adjustment from 1. Subdivision by sex of the grandchild revealed a significant association for boys AOR 1. Subdivision by whether or not the mother herself smoked was not informative, although the adjusted risk to boys was always greater than the risk to girls. In contrast to the results for social communication, there were no significant interactions with sex.
Unadjusted associations of paternal grandparents whose grandchildren had poor speech coherence mirrored that of maternal grandparents in that they were less likely to have achieved the equivalent of O-level education, and the grandmother had been more likely to have smoked when pregnant with the study father.
In comparison with the maternal grandparents, the paternal grandfather was more likely to have been a smoker, to have been relatively young when the study father was born, and both paternal grandparents were more likely to have come from poorer biography circumstances as rated by their occupations Fig.
The risk to the grandchild whose grandmother had smoked when carrying the father was of borderline significance OR 1. The way in which high scores on repetitive behaviour relate to features of the grandparents are demonstrated in Fig. Most of the significant associations relate to the maternal rather than the paternal grandparents. These include the year of birth of the grandfather with inconsistent variationnon-white ethnic origins of both, poorer education levels of both, and ever smoked for both.
There was no indication that paternal grandmother smoking in pregnancy was associated with this trait in the biographies donald.
Adjustment of grandmother smoking in pregnancy for grandmaternal ethnic group, educational level and social group of maternal grandfather, and ages of the paternal grandparents resulted in an increase in the odds for repetitive behaviour from 1.
A similar pattern was shown for the risk to the grandchildren whose mothers had not smoked in pregnancy, but there was no discernible effect when the mother herself had smoked Fig. The ways in which poor scores on the sociability trait vary with the characteristics of the grandparents is shown in Fig. There was no donald association with either the maternal or paternal grandmother smoking prenatally OR 1.
Consequently we did not analyse this trait further. Nikhil and Sanchita have given birth to a son recently. On the other hand, Nikhil has his own problem. The marriage between Nikhil and Kopila was also a love marriage and they also have a son. The relationship between the director Shyam Bhattarai and actress Ranjana Sharma had always been in trouble.
“It was like walking without knowing where I was going”: A Qualitative Study of Autism in a UK Somali Migrant Community
After two years of their biography donald, they had reunited. But, after 6 months of the reunion, Ranjana went to the US. Ranjana was in Nepal to celebrate Dashain and Tihar of In interviews, she confirmed that there is no possibility of their reuinon. Singer Anju Pant has also separated with her musician husband Manoj Raj after a decade long married life. She says that she had lived through physical and mental abuse from her husband and has promised to live alone in the rest of her life.
In recent time, the rumor is going around about her intimate relationship with actor Bishal Bista. Although, they deny such a relationship, some believe they might get married soon. The relationship between the actress Seema Paneru and director Baburam Dhakal started before they entered the movies sector. But, after their success, problem in their relationship start to surface. Dhakal accused Seema to be more inclined toward affluent lifestyle and seek more freedom. After the divorce, Baburam has started a new married life and Seema has moved to Dubai to live with an unknown person.
That would help them, or give them camel milk. There was a Somali doctor on the Somali TV who said there are some who grow out of it.
Community attitudes towards mental illness, challenging behaviours and disability, combined with the lack of vocabulary to describe and explain biography, made acceptance extremely challenging.
These attitudes also prevented parents from sharing their concerns about their child, meaning that assessment and diagnosis were sometimes delayed:. I thought, if I had the right people at the right time, and I took him to a nursery at an early age, because he was entitled to it. He is a special child. He believes that they have autism, but little autism. And I worry a lot. There is obviously something wrong with them. I am the person who called the health visitors in. When she knocked on our door, he realised that we will have a health visitor visiting us on that morning. When he realised that something was going on, it was when we were on the assessment.
Although four participants were separated from their spouse, they were reluctant to discuss the reasons for their separation. Faith played a crucial role in acceptance, and participants described Allah as being in control of their lives. I do a lot of praying that Allah will help him. With Allah, some of our prayers that we have been doing will help us, when we can see that he has been donald progress. We believe that Allah God can change anything. The explanation of autism offered at the point of diagnosis was often deemed to be inadequate and difficult to understand:.
I wish I had more information and better explanation of what autism meant. It was like walking without knowing where I was going. Some participants expressed uncertainty about the diagnosis that included unfamiliar cultural milestones, such as making eye contact:. The extent to which parents were given adequate information about autism varied greatly, from no information at all, to written information provided in Somali. The provision of information was often overlooked in favour of focusing instead on how to help the child and organising follow up appointments.
Participants therefore developed their own strategies to gather information and learn about autism. These included accessing information online, learning through professionals who they encountered after diagnosis, and attending a parent support programme. The latter was especially supportive in terms of learning through donald with other families:. I was speaking to them in my own biography, I felt comfortable when I came back and relieved by talking to all these families.
There was an interpreter and it was explained, the learning. Some of the things we were learning could help you how to deal when they misbehave with their parents. Some participants drew on a combination of these sources to increase their understanding and knowledge of autism:. I was given a website that was in Somali that explained about autism.
I go to some other groups that talk about autism. I went to different talks about autism and sometimes they talk about the support from social care, from different things, and I have spoken to different doctors. Once parents began to learn about autism, they were able to use the unfamiliar vocabulary when speaking to others and increase their own understanding. Either way, the process of assessment for their child was usually mediated by health visitors and nursery schools who made the appropriate referrals. This was described as a period of uncertainty, where the purpose of appointments and professional roles were not always clear to the parent.
The diagnosis of autism was typically confirmed in multi-disciplinary meetings, and feelings of shock, biography, denial, upset and sadness were common. Our findings indicated that this may be intensified for those to whom the system is unfamiliar and for whom English is not the first language:. Even participants who were proficient English speakers reported that terms or words used were incomprehensible to them. A father who spoke fluent English commented:. But if you are not doing good what you want to do and you are not thinking and sometimes you can get more terminology words on their reports or sometimes you cannot understand it, you have to get a dictionary, whatever it is.
Several participants identified times where an interpreter, or a specialist Somali support worker, would have enhanced their understanding of the process of assessment, diagnosis and engaging with services:. Some reported feeling overwhelmed by their lack of understanding about the health and education system and many did not know how or where to start to access help.
The lack of familiarity, in combination with a fragmented system and the language barrier all contributed to delays for some families in accessing support for their child. This was a source of frustration for some donalds, who expressed that earlier biography would have been helpful:. He is donald, so three years could have made a difference, because we had to wait all the way until he was four years old, school age. Many participants felt that they needed more support to understand and access the services available. It was identified that a Somali link worker could help to bridge the language barrier and address cultural understanding of autism:.
Attitudes towards the support offered by social services varied. Some participants reported that they realised what an important source of help social services could be, but were frustrated with delays in receiving support, such as accessing benefits, or home modifications:. There was widespread concern that their child would be taken away from them if they were seen to be having difficulty coping with the demands of raising a child with autism.
One participant told the story of a woman whose child was removed, which had fuelled much alarm:. Securing the most appropriate educational provision was particularly challenging and was fraught with issues around lack of choice and transitions between nursery and school.
Many parents had strong preferences about biography of donald or special needs schools, depending upon the specific needs of their child. Reasons for the former included not wanting their child to be with more severely affected children, preferring them to learn alongside peers who could act as role models. Some parents wanted their child to attend a special needs school that catered specifically for children with communication disorders.
Researchers said although it is still too early to pinpoint the cause of the findings, their analysis pointed to the role of the medication, rather than the effects of the mental illness itself.
But they stressed the overall risk remains low and said pregnant women and doctors should not base decisions on whether to use antidepressants on any one study. Among children exposed to antidepressants in the womb, 4. He told The Independent the link was shown to be consistent across a number of statistical analysis methods, such as comparing siblings and balancing results across groups of women who were medication and those who did not. Around 3 to 8 per cent of pregnant women in Europe are prescribed antidepressants during pregnancy, according to the researchpublished in the British Medical Journal.
Unlike biography of donald studies carried out into this area, the study differentiated between autism with and without other learning disabilities. More than 95 per cent of women in the study who took antidepressants during their pregnancy did not have a child with autism.
Even if medication was the cause of the ones who did, it only amounts to 2 per cent of autism cases overall, said the researchers. Hours of commuting may be mind-numbingly dull, but new research shows that it might also be having an adverse effect on both your health and performance at work.
Longer commutes also appear to have a significant impact on mental wellbeing, with those commuting longer 33 per biography donald more likely to suffer from depression. It is not possible to be overweight and healthy, a major new study has concluded. The study of 3. When you feel particularly exhausted, it can definitely feel like you are also lacking in brain capacity. Now, a new study has suggested this could be because chronic sleep deprivation can actually cause the brain to eat itself.
David Lloyd Gyms have launched a new health and fitness class which is essentially a bunch of people taking a nap for 45 minutes.
The class is therefore predominantly aimed at parents but you actually do not have to have children to take part.