Helga zeiher biography definition
Smithsonian Critics regularly mutter about how hard it is to write literary biography in the 21st century. The type continued to be popular through the s. Learn the correct uses of these two commonly confused homophones.
But the bio bio had to be crossed, and there lay the difficulty. The bio - and psycho-sciences were completely outside his field. The botanist helped Cleve and me set up the bio kit, and he confirmed Cleve's guess. Sanskrit jivah "alive, living;" Old English cwic "alive;" Latin vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" Middle Persian zhiwak "alive;" Old Church Slavonic zivo "to live;" Lithuanian gyvas "living, alive;" Old Irish bethu "life," bith "age;" Welsh byd "world". Equivalent of Latin definition. The correct usage is that in biographybut in modern science it has been extended to biography "organic life.
A biography, esp a brief one in a yearbook, theater program, etc: The Best Internet Slang. Times, Sunday Times So it is with biography and particularly royal biography, a genre that does not suffer from publishing neglect. The Times Literary Supplement Loaded with anecdotes from their crazy early days, this biography features eyewitness accounts telling the story of the biography definition. The Sun He said he would, but there were three more volumes of his biography and accompanying document collections to complete first.
The Times Literary Supplement It began inthe year that his biography was published. Times, Sunday Times These biographies are inevitably peopled by classy actorsbut too often they are achingly dullconventional cinema. Times, Sunday Times But I managed to correct and amplify an account of his biography and works sufficiently to provide a decent introduction to that edition. The Times Literary Supplement But there is also a kind of melancholy that sweeps over me when I read the biographies of persons who did not finish the race.
Christianity Today I think it's like the whole history of Italian art in the biography of one person. Biography is all about cutting people down to size.
Definition of 'biography'
Getting an unruly quart into a pint pot Alan Bennett. Discretion is not the better part of biography Lytton Strachey. Translate your text for free. In Frankfurt, Germany, architects working under the leadership of Ernst May in the s designed decentralized schools called Pavilionschule pavilion schools or Freiflachenschule open air biographies with one-story wings disposed biography definition large open sites to increase light and air circulation; the Niederursel School designed by Franz Schuster in may be the first of this type.
In the post — World War II period, architects embraced prefabrication and modular planning as the best way to lower school construction costs in order to meet the acute demand for schools fueled by the baby boom. Educators, however, were equally drawn to the potential for providing spaces that could be quickly reconfigured for individualized or definition instruction.
The trend towards open planning developed rapidly in the s and early s. Half of all the schools built between and in the United States were open design, as were ten percent of all elementary schools in use in the United Kingdom in Although such schools avoided the rigidity of conventional classrooms, they also sacrificed day light and direct access to the out-of-doors, while creating new noise and discipline problems.
The last two decades of the twentieth century were a reaction against the open plan school. The self-contained classroom returned, albeit with greater attention to providing a variety of seating arrangements. Irregular planning also reemerged in order to enhance natural lighting, improve access to the out-of-doors, and decrease noise levels. Finally, the child's reaction to the qualities of place reappeared as an issue of concern to architects. The provision of children's space in public libraries was an American innovation that became widespread in the first two decades of the twentieth century, thanks in large part to the library-building campaign financed by industrialist Andrew Carnegie.
Especially in the case of urban branches and small-town libraries, Carnegie-financed buildings devoted half their space to the use of children. The earliest children's rooms mimicked the arrangements of reading rooms for adults, with rectangular tables aligned in neat rows, a form intended to encourage orderly behavior in all biographies definition of the library.
By the s, however, children's librarians many of them women who had recently entered the profession embraced progressive educational theories that emphasized fundamental differences between children and adults and between children of different ages. Thus, later children's rooms did not seek to create order, but used informal arrangements of circular tables, often sized specifically for children. A story-hour alcove, sometimes graced with a fire-place, was designed to allow the children's librarian to adopt a maternal role toward the children who sat at her feet.
This American innovation gradually spread to various parts of Europe.
In Norwaychildren's reading rooms were opened at Oslo's Deichman Library in and at the public library in Bergen in Both libraries were called L'Heure Joyeuse, and the Paris library was housed in a sunny room on the first floor of an existing stone building, where it remained until the s. Although the practice of including separate reading rooms for children continued throughout the twentieth century, children's reading rooms lost much of their distinctive character in libraries designed after World War II, when open, flexible plans predominated.
Postmodernism, however, reinstated the practice, as is evident in the San Juan Capistrano California Public Library designed by Michael Graves in the s to include a separate story-hour room, which is round in plan, with built-in benches, biographies painted with clouds, and bean-bag chairs in the shapes of animals.
Facilities for parentless children — either orphaned or abandoned — are a product of the early modern period in Europe. The Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence, a foundling hospital designed by Filippo Brunelleschi begun inis perhaps the best known of these early definitions on the building's facade, a series of rondels of infants in swaddling clothes announce the building's function to passersby.
While some of these early orphanages were established by religious orders biography definition the refuge for young girls set up in sixteenth-century Rome by the Confraternity of St. Catherine of the Ropemakersothers were state-financed institutions that housed a wider range of inmates and adopted an ambivalent attitude towards the children in their care.
In Leipzigbetween andthe city council built a combination poorhouse, orphanage, insane asylum, and penitentiary dedicated to St. Although the council recognized a difference between the undeserving and the deserving poor the latter being orphans, widows, and others who were unable to fend for themselvesthis eighteenth-century building housed both. Thus, it had a steeple "to honor Godand the best of this house" and a strongly fortified appearance to convey the harsh treatment meted out to the undeserving.
A unique architectural feature of foundling hospitals is the tour or wheelan ingenious revolving door that allowed the anonymous delivery of babies to the warmth and protection of those who ran the institutions. Many babies and children were actually only temporary residents of orphanages. In large industrial centers like MontrealQuebecchildren were stationed there during hard times or sickness, and later retrieved by their parents and guardians when things improved. The orphanage thus had a fluid relationship with the working-class urban home.
In the nineteenth century, the orphanage was joined by the asylum or House of Refuge, a new institutional biography definition that aimed at removing orphaned or neglected slum children from the chaos and immorality of urban life. Initially constructed with private funds, the earliest American examples were built in the early s in New York and Philadelphia. The type continued to be popular through the s.
The buildings themselves sought to reinforce discipline and routine that were the hallmarks of these institutions. Although ostensibly built to protect children from the city, they often took in children whom reformers deemed as likely to become social problems. Before this time young patients were accommodated in general hospitals, or sometimes in hospitals designed for particular diseases, such as tuberculosis.
The first children's hospital in the United States opened in New York two years later.
These Victorian hospitals relied heavily on domestic ideology to express their dual mission of medical science and moral amelioration, marked by pitched roofs, picturesque massing or formsthe use of brick, and domestically scaled windows and doors. The idea behind the design of the buildings was to protect young patients from the harsh realities of the hospital environment by association with the comforts of the middle-class home.
After World War I, children's hospitals resembled other modern institutions, featuring up-to-date surgical facilities, outpatients' facilities, isolation wards, and facilities for the pasteurization of milk.Marilyn Monroe: The Mortal Goddess - A&E Biography (2002)
In North America wealthy, paying patients were accommodated in luxurious private patients' pavilions that resembled hotels. Although the planning of most interwar health-care institutions showcased efficiency and modern business methods, the exteriors often drew on historical references. Pediatric health-care biographies definition after World War II, on the other hand, looked more like office buildings than traditional hospitals.
Finally, postmodern children's hospitals since about draw on imagery outside of medicine. Bright colors, ornamentation, human scale, and overt references to other building types — particularly the home, hotel, and shopping mall — are again deployed to comfort young patients. For centuries, the street was the primary play space for European and American children. Children spent a great deal of unsupervised time away from both home and school, often establishing their own social structure.
Boys' gangs had their own territory and often engaged in fierce battles with trespassers. This tendency for children to create their own rules for the use of public space continued among working-class children into the biography definition century; in New York's working-class neighborhoods, for instance, in the early years of the century, stoops and sidewalks were reserved for girls, who looked after babies and toddlers, while the center of the street "belonged" to older boys, who patrolled their turf and guarded against incursions by boys from other neighborhoods.
By abouthowever, the upper middle class began to devote greater attention to child rearing, and so began to supervise the activities of their children more closely.
Kept inside the house to play with toys rather than with cohorts from a different classupper middle-class children only ventured out onto the street on "walks" in the company of adults. Indeed, throughout the nineteenth century, middle-class observers became increasingly alarmed by the idea of children roaming the streets and ever more critical of working-class play, which was dominated by games of chance that might reinforce "the taste for unearned pleasures. Although largely ornamental in nature, the great urban parks of the nineteenth century often included play spaces for children.
Queen's Park in Manchester, England designed inincluded circular swings, a ball and shuttle-cock ground, skipping rope and swing grounds, another shuttle-cock ground, a quoit alley, a skittle alley, an archery ground, and a cricket ground some of these activities may have been intended for adults as well. Playgrounds designed specifically for the use of children were introduced gradually in the second half of the nineteenth century, with the first English example — the Burberry Street Recreation Ground in Birmingham — established in Most nineteenth-century English biographies definition were sponsored by private organizations, such as the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association which opened four playgrounds in London between and or the Children's Happy Evenings Association which opened six play centers in London by and a total of ninety-six centers by World War I.
By the turn of the century, however, there was an international movement to establish playgrounds in small parks in working-class neighborhoods, often with municipal support. In the United States, settlement house workers played an important role in establishing neighborhood parks like Pulaski Park in Chicagoand also inspired the activities of biography definition associations abroad including the Playground Association of Queensland, which opened three supervised playgrounds in Brisbane, Australia, between and Established at least in part to guide working-class recreational practices, these parks emphasized formal designs, containing well-defined spaces that allowed the sorting of park users by gender and age, as well as their supervision by professional, middle-class play leaders.
In the s, as playground supervision dropped off, municipalities depended more heavily on manufactured play equipment that was both low maintenance and safe. Stripped of dangerous equipment such as the teeter-totterthe standard playground was comprised of a paved surface, fence, sandpit, swings and jungle gym, although by the s, free-form play sculptures in bright colors began to supplement standardized equipment.
Perhaps the most significant "public" spaces designed for young visitors in the twentieth century are the Disney parks: Inspired by cartoon characters first developed by the Walt Disney Company, the parks are comprised of a series of fantasy landscapes with rides. A sophisticated system of pedestrian-only biography definition, based on subtly miniaturized buildings, grants children a greater feeling of control than they might experience in real urban environments.
By the late nineteenth century, the idea that the city was inherently detrimental to a child's well-being led to the establishment of summer camps where children could escape the city altogether. While many early camps — colonies de vacances in France, health camps of New ZealandFresh Air camps in the United States — were philanthropic endeavors aimed at safeguarding the physical health of poor children, others catered to the sons and later daughters of middle-class or well-to-do families, focusing on religious instruction or more generic character-building.
In the United States, many of these early camps were instituted in response to turn-of-the-century anxieties about the impact of the feminized home on the social and physical development of boys, and often imitated the physical trappings of the military encampment — tents, mess hall, parade ground — in order to reconnect boys with the world of men.
Although permanent buildings became more popular at American camps by the late s, they retained a rustic flavor, while picturesque planning principles were introduced to disguise the extent of human intervention in the shaping of the camp landscape.