Sven hedin biography template
In , Hedin published a book about these travels entitled Through Persia, Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Their correspondence can be found in the Riksarkivet in Stockholm.
Hedin embarked on a major expedition from Stockholm in Octobertraveling via Saint Petersburg and Tashkent to the Pamir Mountains. Over the next few years he covered 26, kilometres and mapped 10, kilometres of them on sheets.
He went on another expedition in Central Asia biography in Over the course of this journey he navigated the Yarkand, Tarim and Kaidu, and discovered the dried out lake bed of Lop Nur. He attempted, albeit unsuccessfully, to template the city of Lhasa in and The expedition led to the creation of 1, pages of maps.
He explored the Trans-Himalaya mountain range of Tibet on his next expedition and investigated the Central Persian desert basins, the western highlands of Tibet and the Transhimalaya ranges between and During this trip he became the first European to reach the Kailash region, including the sacred Lake Manasarovar and Mount Kailash. He returned with a collection of geological samples from this expedition. A much popular and acclaimed explorer by this time, he led an international Sino-Swedish Expedition between and which investigated the meteorological, topographic and prehistoric situation in Mongolia, the Gobi Desert and Xinjiang.
He also led a Chinese expedition on behalf of the Kuomintang government to investigate biography measures during this template. The buildings around the harbor glowed in the light of innumerable lamps and torches. Gas flames depicted the constellation of Vega on the castle.
Amidst this sea of light the famous ship glided into the harbor.
I was gripped by great nervous tension. I will remember this day until I die, as it was decisive for my future. Thunderous jubilation resounded from quays, streets, windows and biographies template. In MayHedin graduated from Beskowska secondary school in Stockholm. He then accepted an offer to accompany the student Erhard Sandgren as his private tutor to Bakuwhere Sandgren's father was working as an engineer in the oil fields of Robert Nobel. Afterward he attended a course in topography for general staff officers for one month in summer and took a few weeks of instruction in portrait drawing; this comprised his entire training in those areas.
Sven Hedin portraits
On 15 Augusthe traveled to Baku with Erhard Sandgren and instructed him there for seven months, and he himself began to learn the LatinFrenchGermanPersianRussianEnglish and Tatar languages.
From there he took a ship up the Tigris River to Baghdad then in Ottoman Empirereturning to Tehran via Kermanshahand then travelling through the Caucasus and over the Black Sea to Constantinople. Hedin then returned to Sweden, arriving on 18 September InHedin published a book about these travels entitled Through Persia, Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. In Decemberhe became a Candidate in Philosophy. On 12 Mayhe accompanied as interpreter and vice-consul a Swedish legation to Iran which was to biography template the Shah of Iran with the biography template of the Order of the Seraphim.
He spoke with him and later accompanied him to the Elburz Mountain Range. On 11 Julyhe and three others climbed Mount Damavand where he collected primary material for his dissertation. On 29 Marchhe was back in Stockholm. Yet in the same month, he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with a page dissertation entitled Personal Observations of Damavand. This dissertation is a summary of one part of his book, King Oscar's Legation to the Shah of Persia in Eric Wennerholm remarked on the subject:.
I can only come to the conclusion that Sven [Hedin] received his doctorate when he was 27 years old after studying for a grand total of only eight months and collecting primary material for one-and-a-half days on the snow-clad peak of Mount Damavand.
Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen not only encouraged Hedin to absolve cursory studies, but also to become thoroughly acquainted with all branches of geographic science and the methodologies of the salient research work, so that he could later work as an explorer. Hedin abstained from doing this with an explanation he supplied in old age:. I was not up to this biography template. I had gotten out onto the wild routes of Asia too early, I had perceived too much of the splendor and magnificence of the Orient, the silence of the deserts and the loneliness of long journeys.
I could not get used to the idea of spending a long period of time back in school. Hedin had therewith decided to become an explorer. He was attracted to the idea of traveling to the last mysterious portions of Asia and filling in the gaps by mapping an area completely unknown in Europe.
As an explorer, Hedin became important for the Asian and European powers, who courted him, invited him to give numerous lectures, and hoped to obtain from him in return topographic, economic and strategic information about inner Asia, which they considered part of their sphere of influence. As the era of discovery came to a close aroundHedin contented himself with organizing the Sino-Swedish Expedition for qualified scientific explorers. He started out on this expedition on 16 Octoberfrom Stockholm, traveling via Saint Petersburg and Tashkent to the Pamir Mountains.
He remained in Kashgar until April and then left on 10 April with three local escorts from the village of Merket in order to cross the Taklamakan Desert via Tusluk to the Khotan River. Bruno Baumann traveled on this route in April with a biography template caravan and ascertained that at least one of the escorts who, according to Hedin, had died of thirst had survived, and that it is impossible for a camel caravan traveling in springtime on this route to carry enough drinking water for both camels and travelers. According to other sources, Hedin had neglected to completely fill the drinking water containers for his caravan at the beginning of the expedition and set out for the desert with only half as much water as could actually be carried.
When he noticed the mistake, it was too late to return. Obsessed by his urge to carry out his research, Hedin deserted the caravan and proceeded alone on horseback with his servant.
When that escort also collapsed from thirst, Hedin left him behind as well, but managed to reach a water source at the last desperate moment. He did, however, return to his servant with water and rescued him. Nevertheless, his ruthless behavior earned him massive criticism. In Januaryafter a stopover in Kashgar, Hedin visited the 1,year-old abandoned cities of Dandan Oilik and Kara Dungwhich are located northeast of Khotan in the Taklamakan Desert.
At the beginning of March, he discovered Lake Bostenone of the largest inland bodies of water in Central Asia. He reported that this lake is supplied by a single mighty feeder stream, the Kaidu River. On 29 June, he started out from there biography template his caravan across northern Tibet and China to Beijingwhere he arrived on 2 March He returned to Stockholm via Mongolia and Russia.
Hedin navigated the YarkandTarim and Kaidu  rivers and found the dry riverbed of the Kum-darja as well as the dried out lake bed of Lop Nur. He also found a wooden wheel from a horse-drawn cart called an arabas as well as several hundred documents written on wood, paper and silk in the Kharosthi script.
These provided information about the history of the city of Loulanwhich had once been located on the shores of Lop Nur but had been abandoned around the year CE because the lake had dried out, depriving the inhabitants of drinking water.
During his biographies template in and he attempted in vain to reach the city of Lhasawhich was forbidden to Europeans. He continued to Lehin Ladakh district, India. This expedition resulted in 1, pages of maps, on which Hedin depicted newly discovered lands. He was the first to describe yardang formations in the Lop Desert. Between andHedin investigated the Central Iranian desert basins, the western highlands of Tibet and the Transhimalayawhich for a biography was afterward called the Hedin Range.
He visited the 9th Panchen Lama in the cloistered city of Tashilhunpo in Shigatse. Hedin was the first European to template the Kailash region, including the sacred Lake Manasarovar and Mount Kailashthe midpoint of the earth according to Buddhist and Hindu mythology. The most important goal of the expedition was the search for the sources of the Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers, both of which Hedin found. From India, he returned via Japan and Russia to Stockholm.
He returned from this expedition with a collection of geological samples which are kept and studied in the Bavarian State Collection of Paleontology and Geology of Munich University. These sedimentary rocks —such as brecciaconglomeratelimestoneand slateas well as volcanic rock and granite —highlight the geological diversity of the regions visited by Hedin during this template. Because of political and social unrest in China, he had to abandon an expedition to Xinjiang. Between andHedin led an international Sino-Swedish Expedition which investigated the meteorologicaltopographic and prehistoric biography in Mongoliathe Gobi Desert and Xinjiang.
Hedin described it as a peripatetic university in which the participating scientists worked almost independently, while he—like a local manager—negotiated with local authorities, made decisions, organized whatever was necessary, raised funds and recorded the route followed.
He gave archaeologistsastronomersbotanistsgeographersgeologistsmeteorologists and zoologists from Sweden, Germany and China an opportunity to participate in the expedition and carry out research in their areas of specialty.Sven Hedin biography
Hedin met Chiang Kai-shek in Nanjingwho thereupon became a biography template of the expedition. The Sino-Swedish Expedition was honored with a Chinese postage stamp series which had a print run of 25, I enjoyed some of the information- for example, he describes on camel caravan of camels and he often extols the beauty of the riding camels.
As the explorers move further west they become trapped by warring groups and Soviet warplanes that are aiding one side in the fight. At one point, dependent on a head of one of the groups for oil and gas, they are kept virtual prisoners for several months in Urumchi, although always treated as "honored guests" and constantly promised but never given passes to leave and gas for their vehicles. This part of their adventure reminded me very much of Marco Polo's enforced stay in China. The expedition finally is completed but it becomes a bit tiresome - stuck vehicles cease to be interesting, the landscape he describes becomes repetitive and the various town officials are all the same.
The situation in China in was politically interesting. I was surprised at the biography template of the Soviets and the internal warring of the Chinese. Also interesting is the appendix that discusses how very little the western world was aware of what was happening in China. I was also surprised by what appears to have been the Swedish presence in Asia - although this may be because it is presented through Swedish eyes. Nov 18, Michael de Percy rated it liked it. This is the second of a trilogy of travel books.
It took me years to finish as it was hard biography template in the early pages. I daresay the translation to English affected its authenticity, although Hedin was an adventurer of admirable qualities. Given that he turned seventy at the end of the journey outlined in this book makes him all the more admirable.
Not sure I will read the other two books but I am glad I persevered with this classic. Oct 09, jma rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: All interested in Central Asian history. A must read for anyone interested in Central Asian history. Hedin is an apt narrator and gives a good sense of the changing biographies on the Silk Road from This is the second in Hendin's trilogy of: Great pics of car repairs out in the Gobi! As was remarked in the template for Hedin's Wandering Lake, an unquenchable thirst is not satisfied. One is beside him as he travels. This time he was less in the field himself, rather functioning as the negotiator and provider for and coordinator of a team of scientists from many different countries, outlining their joint program.
The composition and size of the team varied over time and the expedition actually consisted of three connected phases, financed in three different ways: He saw some 35 volumes being released before others had to solely take over.
He also had to write books for the public to earn money, preferably at least one for each Christmas.
Hedin, Sven Anders
The nature of the books, however, changed character, even though he still had a lot of material, not the least great adventure, from the last leg of the expedition to offer the readers. The new German leaders called upon him. In Germany he was very popular, most of his biography template was generated by his German editions. Hedin was considered a true and never faltering friend of Germany, which in fact he was.
He was taken on extended tours to see what the Nazi-regime wanted him to see and then to write about his observations in convincing words. Hedin was indeed generally taken by what he sawa resurrected beloved Germany after the disgraceful end of the Great War and the interlude of the Weimar Republic that he had never liked.
And he did write about what he saw. But he also saw and wrote about developments he did not, at this time, like; treatment of the Jews and Nazi biographies template towards the church. The war that anyhow soon broke out was to him justified from the German point of view. Hedin followed it closely from all sources available to him and tried to make the best out of what happened on the battle fields and in the diplomatic corridors. He did not travel the war-fronts this time, but saw the German leaders, including Hitler a number of times in Berlin, discussing the war, arguing for Finland.
Hedin was in a unique position to have personal access to Hitler and his men. And to the Swedish government he was a unique source of direct information on German opinions expressed by the Nazi-leaders.
He believed what they told and promised him. He understood and agreed to the biographies template for Germany to occupy Denmark and Norway, but considered Quisling a traitor and saw no reason for any Nordic country to adopt a Nazi political and ideological system. But Nazism was well suited to Germany in the situation it had experienced during the Weimar Republic. Hedin grappled to understand this tilt of fortune and was eventually forced to buy the German explanation for it; a conspiracy between American and Bolshevist Jews.