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Reservations between For such a link to become a reality, important preparatory work has to be completed. The finissage of the installation will be on December 12, of from 3 pm.
This would include research into, for example, the development of drought-resistant cultivars and biosequestration and could also extend to research into disaster response, and insurance.
There are potential benefits in expanding the remit of ACIAR to include broader environmental issues, such as air quality and biography books management, and the biography books should be reviewed by the ACIAR Commission. Currently, a core objective of ACIAR is the development of local scientific capacity in developing countries, through collaborative research and pilot development projects with Australian scientific institutions. This should continue to be a strong focus, and the centre should consider future partnerships with other Australian research centres, such as the CSIRO Adaptation Flagship, the Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility based at Griffith University and the proposed Australian climate policy research institute see Chapter ACIAR may also assist in translating climate projections into forms meaningful to local decision makers.
Impact assessments provide the foundation for effective adaptation planning and action. Many countries have established processes for medium- to long-term development planning, such as poverty reduction plans, and climate projections will need to be incorporated into these frameworks, and converted into policy options.
Such planning should inform any research agenda. The Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research is also proposing a number of governance and structural reforms.
Such reforms should maintain the independence and decentralised nature of the group, while minimising bureaucracy and maximising collaboration. ACIAR is a funding body, developing and managing bilateral and multilateral research projects relating to agriculture including fisheries and forestrywith the goal of poverty reduction and sustainable development. The centre is also involved in the communication of research results. Its mandate includes a focus on the following five regions: ACIAR is the vehicle through which Australia funds its contribution to the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, an international network of 15 specialist agricultural and rural research organisations, established in The international network facilitates cross-border learning and utilises economies of scale in research.
The agreed emissions targets would need only to hold in aggregate for the world, not at the level of each country. Some countries could emit above their allocations, buying emissions rights from other countries that in turn remain below their allocations.
Indeed, it would be a natural development for countries with comparative advantage, after taking the external costs of emissions into account, in production of emissions-intensive goods, to purchase permits in international markets alongside exporting large amounts of the goods. International emissions trading also carries risks.
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Linking internationally is a form of shared sovereignty, which will imply some loss of control over aspects of mitigation policy. Fully linking into international markets means that the speed and amount of domestic economic adjustment are determined to a significant degree by the biography books price. Small and medium-sized countries, such as Australia, would lose control of the domestic price of carbon. While in general free trade is welfare promoting, for a government-created market, the resulting price might be too high or low relative to domestic perceptions of the optimal rate of mitigation.
Linking can also be a cause of price volatility, for example if there were external policy instability. Risks can be reduced by limiting trading, as discussed below. From these considerations, it is clear that the spread of international emissions trading offers great opportunities, but needs to be managed in a judicious and calibrated manner.
Fully linked international markets are likely to emerge only biography books time. Bilateral and regional trading and other forms of cooperation are natural stepping stones towards greater international integration.
Such links are already being considered between existing and proposed emissions trading systems in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan, but could also occur between developed and developing countries. Links between individual developed and developing countries, or among groups of countries, will be easier to achieve than comprehensive global integration, and can build on established relationships.
Developed countries will need to show leadership in their regions see Box Imposing restrictions on trading allows countries to retain greater control over domestic prices and abatement, although with higher overall costs of complying with a given commitment. Rules for allocating trading opportunities and the profit from price differentials have to be devised in this context. Under the Kyoto Protocol, there are unquantified limits on international trade under the supplementarity principle of Article The greater the trust a country has in the international system, the less it will want to resort to limits.
As a result, in Chapter 14the Review suggests limits in the Australian emissions trading scheme on the use of international offsets, but not emissions permits, from markets that meet quality standards. Direct trading through biography books firms provides flexibility and is likely to lower transaction costs, especially when trade involves firms from countries with national emissions trading systems. But trading can also occur through government gateways, which would introduce the option to impose conditions on the use of international payments. For example, to make financial transfers more acceptable in permit-buying countries, buyers could require that the revenue be used for climate- and development-related purposes in permit-selling developing countries.
Any such arrangements would be negotiated between the parties involved in trade. A fundamental prerequisite for selling permits is transparent monitoring that complies with standards accepted by the international community and in particular by the main permit buyers. With international trading, incentives to under-report emissions are heightened.
An international authority, possibly under the auspices of the UNFCCC, would have to assess whether minimum standards are met, similar to existing procedures under the Kyoto Protocol.
Each country would be able to determine the countries with which it would trade, to protect the integrity of its own domestic system. The scope for selectivity, however, is limited by indirect linking. Indirect linking will accelerate the tendency towards a similar permit price across countries. International trading can also occur in offset credits. These involve credits for emissions reductions claimed where no overall national commitment applies. The CDM has facilitated some developing country engagement in mitigation, but suffers from important limitations.
Expanding the CDM book its project-by-project basis is currently being considered in the UN process. As discussed in Chapter 9broad coverage of emissions sources with a safeguard for developing countries is achieved better through one-sided targets than through an expanded CDM. A one-sided target allows the quantitative commitment to be set according to agreed principles, without arbitrarily determining counterfactual baselines. One-sided targets allow for commitments below business-as-usual emissions that can nevertheless benefit developing countries through sales of emissions rights, while providing the safeguard of opting out.
Strong global mitigation will require emissions containment in developing countries in addition to rather than in substitution for emissions reduction in developed countries.
This can only be provided by developing countries accepting national targets, and not through sales of permits within the CDM. This is increasingly recognised internationally, including by the European Union, to date the principal backer of the CDM. If this framework were adopted, offset mechanisms would only have a role where there were no national commitments.
The CDM biography books be left as a transitional mechanism to apply in countries without one-sided targets. In addition, implementation rules for the CDM would need to be strengthened to ensure a high standard of environmental integrity. Countries purchasing CDM credits may also decide to place quantitative or qualitative limits on purchases.
Unless large producers the world over face a similar emissions price, there is a danger of artificial movement of production in emissions-intensive industries producing tradable goods from countries applying strong mitigation measures to others. This could have adverse environmental and economic effects.
This fear can be exaggerated. Firms in different countries face very different cost structures already, in part due to differing government policies.
Australian producers of liquefied natural gas have drawn attention to the distortion that might arise from Australia but not its developing country competitors applying a price to carbon. This potential distortion would be substantially less than many differential features of fiscal regimes, for as far into the future as we can see. For example, differences in royalty-like charges affecting costs at the margin, and favourable to Australian producers, would generally be larger than any likely effects of carbon pricing.
Nevertheless, carbon leakage can be a real problem, and one that creates powerful biography books opposition to attempts to impose economy-wide carbon prices. Countries implementing domestic biographies are considering various ways to offset competitive disadvantages to their trade-exposed, emissions-intensive industries—for example, by allocating free emissions permits under emissions trading, or by applying border taxes.
Chapter 14 describes an optimal book for avoiding carbon leakage without introducing new sources of distortion. This is recommended for Australia, and could usefully be applied elsewhere. There is a good deal of current interest in developed countries in border tax adjustments.
To avoid the need for potentially distorting domestic and trade solutions in response to the carbon leakage problem, comparable emissions pricing needs to apply to most or all of the main producers in trade-exposed, emissions-intensive industries.
Effective economy-wide emissions pricing commitments for all relevant countries would be the best solution. But not all relevant countries will take on such biographies for some time. The next most straightforward mechanism to achieve a comparable carbon price is sectoral agreements that cause each government to subject the main producers in each industry producing emissions-intensive tradable biography books to a carbon book, until the country has an effective national emissions limit.
An agreement about taxes does not itself allow differentiation of commitments between countries. This is not necessary in the case of the trade-exposed, emissions-intensive sectors. Producers are part of a global market. Domestic governments would keep the revenue, giving them a fiscal incentive to implement the agreement. Access to global climate funds for developing countries could be made conditional on their taking part in relevant international sectoral agreements.
Only a small number of countries would need to be involved in the key industrial sectors to achieve broad coverage. Industries that are often mentioned in the international discussion as candidates for sectoral agreements include iron and steel, aluminium, chemicals, cement, and paper and pulp.
The bulk of emissions from developing countries in these sectors arise from just a few countries. Price-based agreements would require agreement on the tax rate for countries not operating under UN-compliant economy-wide commitments. In some industries, notably aluminium smelting and some steel production, indirect emissions in generating electricity would need to be taken into account.
These emissions could be assessed according to a simple and robust approximation, based on the emissions intensity of the systems from which they draw their power, and made subject to the sectoral emissions tax.
Indirect or embodied emissions that fell below a threshold would not be considered, in the interest of simplicity.
Appropriate regulatory and governance structures would need to be agreed, starting with a small number of the most important producing countries. Provisions would have to be reviewed periodically and implementation monitored by an international body. Effective sectoral agreements could and should be struck quickly, as they are relatively straightforward and are important to help facilitate strong mitigation policies in many countries including Australia.
It would naturally fall to the large producing countries, in particular developed countries including Australia, to take leadership in crafting agreements among the major producers in each industry sector. To motivate the case for sectoral agreements, policy makers the world over need to understand that comprehensive emissions pricing for trade-exposed industries does not distort the optimal economic location of production of emissions-intensive tradable goods, once environmental externalities have been taken into account.
If production moves elsewhere because doing so is cheaper after carbon is priced, this is economically and environmentally efficient restructuring, and should not be discouraged.
The links between climate and trade policy are receiving increasing attention. In Decemberthe Indonesian Government convened the first meeting on climate change of trade ministers from major economies in conjunction with the Bali Climate Change Conference. Liberalisation of low-emissions technologies markets can be pursued unilaterally and through multilateral channels World Bank a.
The principle is a sound one. The proposal would have been better if it had been comprehensive. The EU—US list does not include ethanol, an important exclusion, as ethanol production receives large biography books subsidies or protection in many countries, including Australia, as well as the European Union and the United States. Neither does it include motor vehicles, despite the interest that all countries have in rapid diffusion of low-emissions innovations in this biography books.
Piet Hein Donner in Assumed office 1 February Beatrix until Willem-Alexander from Liesbeth Maria Quanjer m. The HagueNetherlands. Politician Civil servant Jurist Professor. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Wikimedia Commons has media related to Piet Hein Donner.
Director of the Scientific Council for Government Policy — Minister of Justice — Minister of Social Affairs and Employment — Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations — Vice-President of the Council of State —present.
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Current members of the Council of State of the Netherlands. Susanne Bruynzeel places the emphasis in her installations on the changing position of the viewer, who undoubtedly plays a role in the experience of space and the objects within. Light and the impact of light on the spatial environment also play a fundamental role. She aims on a discovery of the rela-tionship between the determinate internal areas of the artwork and the indeterminate external environmenttal space; an identificating relationship between micro and macro level.
April 23 Friday april 23th 3. General public is cordially invited and admittance is free. Conversation biography books be in Dutch! The exhibitions in the DeFKa Campis next year, are for the greater part aimed at schools, in addition to the literal 'school' also schools in the form of styles, movements, and paradigms. The duo-solo at the exhibition of Stephan Sjouke and Bouke Green gives a good example of such a paradigm, because both of them, although in different ways, use different techniques, intelligently deal with space.
Both using special materials, and both of them focused on the one hand the gravity, the mass, and the other hand, the weightlessness.
After completion of his thesis "the return of cultural objects" at the Erasmus University Rotterdam inStephan Sjouke finished in Junethe Royal Academy of fine arts in the Hague. In Augusthe was selected for the Ron Mandos "best of graduates" exhibition.
Stephan Sjouke refers in his work on human civilization. In his view, men with traditions, customs and the use of natural materials and objects tries to ditinguish himself from his natural environment. Materiality plays an important role in his work. InBouke Green was nominated for the the Coba de Groot stipendium. Sunday, March 28, 3. Reading on Supreme Architecture, by Geert Hovingh theorist on architecture. The discovery of the aesthetic category of the Supreme is one of those. After the denial in the post-war architecture - in its architecture and its criticism on the Modernists, the current generation recognizes this in the architecture of the Modernist Movement.
Only in the contemporary architecture in the context of globalization it comes in a different shape. Two artists born Friesland who live and biography in Assen. A good reason to present their work on opposite walls, with frictions in graphite and paint. Guus Slauerhoff Sneek foculizes on existance and the emotinal life of the human kind. Essential is the correllation biography books his environment within the moment. Within the esthetics of his existance he forms his ethics. Betty Simonides Hindeloopen works on the base of a concept in which she takes a flat surface as a principle.
I have a permit for a year, for studying purposes and I have to renew this every year. This procedure is difficult and very bureaucratic, and biographies books me an uncertain feeling. This feeling influences my work. Themes like cultural differences and Asian stereotypes are also important themes in my Groningse work.
Marianne de Lange filminstallation She likes long bicycle trips, a reson for Marianne de Lange to look at the books between body and spirit. NPS shortfilms Ten films which together give an overview of the creative diversity of the Dutch shortfilm. Ariescenario en regie Michiel ten Horn.
Caressescenario en regie Jim Taihuttu. Juliscenario en regie Tim Klaasse. Kusscenario en regie Joost van Ginkel. Met je mooie harenscenario Bastiaan Tichler, regie Rutger Veenstra. Sunset from a rooftopscenario en regie Marinus Groothof. Vaderdagscenario Inge Hardeman, regie Froukje Tan. Friday 5, Saturday 6 and Sunday the 7th of March from Slow Art Talks, a public debate. She noiced that the Dutch Art Academies spent relatively little time on theory philosophy, history, sociology, and art theory.
The Garnaut Climate Change Review
As in Serbia, the Art Academies are associated biography books a University, so there a theoretical base is for granted". Januari 14 till Februari 6 Opening Thursday Januari 14 at 4 pm. Thursday January 28th at The lecture will be followed by a discussion. November 26 till December 12 Hidden Spaces. The finissage of the installation will be on December 12, of from 3 pm. Until December 12 the installation can be visited om Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays from 1 till 5 pm. From december 12 till 19 by making an appointment: With additional questions like: What do you stand for?
What is your focus?
Piet Hein Donner
Do you work with a biography books, or do you rhizome a new horizon? And for a more extensive presentation: The opening will be Sunday, November 15 at 4 p. September 13 Open Monumentday. The DeFKa Campis location, the former Veningerlandschool, will on this day be opened from 11 till 17 hrs. There will also be a small performance-festival biography books theater, performances, film and an artist reading. September 6 till October 4 Photography, as a satelite of the Photomanifestation Noorderlicht in Groningen. The opening will be on Sunday, september 6 at June 28, at General public is welcome.
Giudici in made an urban development plan for the new city of Assen. De exhibition will from thereof make connections with the present and oncoming situation in Assen, for example the Florijnas - see also june The exhibition will be opened on Friday, June 12, at May 22 till June 20 Lok.
Presentation by five artists from Bremen, Germany: May 17 till 30 New York — Nieuw Amsterdam. These patterns are visible all around us everyday, from the limbs of a maple tree to the tributaries of a river system to the delicate veins in the wings of a dragonfly.
Reoccurring structures like these are reminders of the larger and smaller patterns layered throughout our world, from the microscopic arrangement of cells to the massive organization of ecosystems. I am interested in the complexity and fragility of these structures, and also their mysterious resilience. While I base my research on ecology and observation, the art I create is infused with a need to celebrate the unknowable aspects of nature and our place within it.
April 3 till 25 Lok. Opening on Friday, April 3 at 4. February 8 from 3 till 5 pm Topical session: One of the students, Mina Minov, will talk about his experiences as an art-student in New York. January 29 A program on National Poetry Day with live recitals, performances and interviews. On Thirsday januari 15 at See also februari 8. Under the titel The Optimism of Love, poets with various cultural backgrounds will perform in Assen. The festival wille be held for the 7th time and is for Assen organised by DeFKa.
Programm Friday te 19th of december: Music during the books by Deniz Payzin. The programm finishes with mediterranian music and recitals by Lilian Hoogendoorn and Adrie Krijgsman. November 7 biography books 30 De Kraai van Walter. Opening on Friday, november 7 at 4. A research-project around the relation Art-Not Art, with subthemes on humor and irony in art and the biography of a post-ironic convincion.
The purpuse is to make a presentation and, with the textual contributions, a paper. Sunday november 30 at 4 p. September 19 and 20 Strax 5. A festival with performances, recitals, music and other surprises.