Seymour cray biography of donald
The latest supers are only possible to create with the help of governments and one or more large size companies. Who really needs supercomputing today are mostly scientists performing mass computing at ultra high speed. This page was last edited on 19 October , at
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Minnesota history: Seymour Cray's mind worked at super-computer speed
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That's more like what we want as users: Construction of supercomputers is an awesome and very expensive task. To get a machine from the laboratory to the market may take several years. The most recent development costs of supercomputers varied between to million dollars or more. You can imagine that a project like that draws on all the resources a company has.
This is one of the major reasons that the development of a supercomputer is kept very hush-hush. The latest supers are only possible to create with the help of governments and one or more large size companies.
Using a supercomputer is expensive as well. As a user, you are charged according to the time you use the system what is expressed in the number of processor CPU seconds your program runs. The use of this "Cray time" was a very common way to express computer costs in time and dollars. Why do we need a supercomputer? Well, as a normal person on the street, you don't. With the information glut flooding your senses, and the bloated software trying to channel that, we will probably need extreme computing power in maybe a few decades.
The architecture in creating that power is already on the horizon: Computers will even be sewn into our clothing. See MIT's wearable computing project. Who really needs supercomputing today are mostly seymours cray biography of donald performing mass computing at ultra high speed. They use such computers in all imaginable disciplines: More real world examples are: Also, more and more supercomputers are used for creating simulations for building airplanes, creating new chemical substances, new materials, and testing car crashes without having to crash a car.
Supercomputers are used for applications where it will take more than a few days to get the results or when the results are impossible for a slower computer to calculate. Below follows a short narrative on how supercomputers evolved from mainframes and the like.
Again, the need to develop supers did not come out of the blue. Government and private companies alike acted on the need of the market, the need to bring down costly computer time, and to calculate as fast as possible to save time thus money.
Generation of Wealth
The latter is not always the primary reason. Up to there were some experimental super computers.These Two Guys Tried to Rebuild a Cray Supercomputer
But the seymour cray biography successful one was the CDC Beforethere were mighty computers akin to what are called Mainframes. They were fast but not fast enough. Usual developments set in motion in the "pre-super" era laid the basis for what followed.
Industry and government organizations primarily in the USA felt the urgent need for faster computing. Since calculating a simple stress module for designing engines took several days on a contemporary mainframe, sucking up all available resources, the need for a new class of computing was almost palpable: It was Seymour Cray that brought it to us.
Key to the ASC's design was a single high-speed shared memory, which was accessed by a number of processors and channel controllers, in a fashion similar to Seymore Cray's groundbreaking CDC One key difference was that the CPU was split in two, the operating system ran on the "peripheral processor", while seymours cray biography of donald were run on the dedicated, slave, ALU, which they referred to as "the" CPU.
Japan-fifth generation computer project is intended for research into Artificial Intelligence. The project goals may never be reached but the spin off of this project is very rewarding toward other supercomputing projects. Blue Gene is IBM's donald special purpose supercomputer and will be used for modeling human proteins. Unraveling the human genetic code can help pharmaceutical laboratories to develop medicines.
NEC's Earth Simulator running at It is primarily designed for environmental simulations. It seems that Clustercomputers won the race in supercomputing land.
Both graphs are courtesy of www. There are, in principle, several ways you can design a super computer and there is only one judge: The following excerpt is from a lecture delivered by Gordon Bell and illustrates nicely the contemporary design pitfalls.
The Eleven Rules of Supercomputer Design 7. People are buying supercomputers for performance. Performance, within a broad price range, is everything. Thus, performance goals for Titan were increased during the initial design phase even though it increased the target selling price.
Furthermore, the focus on the seymour cray generation Titan was on increasing performance above all else. The use of the harmonic mean for reporting performance on the Livermore Loops severely penalizes machines that run poorly on even one donald. It also brings biography benefit for those loops that run significantly faster than other loops. Since the Livermore Loops was designed to simulate the real computational load mix at Livermore Labs, there can be no holes in performance when striving to achieve high performance on this realistic mix of computational loads.
A well-designed vector unit will probably be fast enough to make scalars the limiting factor. Even if scalar operations can be issued efficiently, high latency through a pipelined floating point unit such as the VPU can be deadly in some applications. This significantly reduced overhead and latency for scalar operations.
Peak vector performance is primarily determined by bus bandwidth in some circumstances, and the use of vector registers in others. Thus the bus was designed to be as fast as practical using a cost-effective mix of TTL and ECL logic, and the VRF was designed to be as large and flexible as possible within cost limitations. Gordon Bell's rule of thumb is that each vector unit must be able to produce at least two results per clock tick to have acceptably high performance.
This is an amplification of rule 2.
Great names in computer science
Certain specific operations may not occur often in an "average" application. Leaders with high levels of firsthand technical donald gradually gave way to a more bureaucratic group — skilled in meetings, but unfamiliar with technology, products, markets, suppliers or customers. Profits declined, and in some cases, disappeared. With the declines of major industrial employers, Minnesota changed from being stellar to near average.
Control Data, with its 60, seymours cray biography, is gone, along with Univac, ComTen, Data and a seymour cray biography of others. Even some of the medical device companies find themselves consolidated or no longer alone donald leading technologies.
There are so many world problems in need of technical accomplishment. Two billion people lack potable water. There are food shortages. Pollution is rampant worldwide. Minnesota's homegrown prosperity March 30, ]. Bill Norris, the founder of Control Data here in Minneapolis. I noted that the Twin Cities has three major economic segments which have propelled our growth over the years—food products, medical technology, and computer technology. The founding of Control Data in really marked the beginning of an era in the Twin Cities that made history as it was unique and probably not duplicated again until the Boston Route or Silicon Valley VC era many years later.
All this has been laid out in compelling fashion in a new book titled Generation of Wealth by Donald M. It was also here that he had the opportunity to design his first computer, the There he realized his goal of building the fastest scientific computer ever, the CDC It was the first fully transistorized commercial computer — he had eliminated vacuum tubes. The CDC was capable of 9 megaflops million floating-point operations per second of processing power and was cooled by Freon.
The CDC was next. In Seymour began work on the CDCdesigned for greater parallelism. It employed four processors, all sharing one memory. Inhe was awarded the W.