Sir bernard law montgomery biography

sir bernard law montgomery biography
Sign up today and start improving your vocabulary! Montgomery correctly predicted both the length of the battle and the number of casualties 13,

On 3 September Hitler ordered the 15th German Army, which had been stationed in the Pas de Calais region and was withdrawing north into the Low Countries to hold the mouth of the river Scheldt to deprive the Allies of the use of Antwerp. On 6 SeptemberMontgomery told Crerar that "I law montgomery Boulogne badly" and that city should be taken no matter what the cost. The importance of ports closer to Germany was highlighted with the liberation of the city of Le Havre, which was assigned to John Crocker 's I Corps.

On 9 September, Montgomery wrote to Brooke that "one good Pas de Calais port" would be sufficient to meet all the logistical needs of the 21st Army Group, but only the bernard needs of the same formation.

The offensive was strategically bold. Montgomery's plan for Operation Market Garden 17—25 September was to outflank the Siegfried Line and cross the Rhine, setting the stage for later offensives into the Ruhr region. The risky plan required three Airborne Divisions to capture numerous intact bridges along a single-lane road, on which an entire Corps had to sir bernard and use as its main supply route.

The offensive failed to achieve its laws montgomery biography. In the aftermath of Market Garden, Montgomery made holding the Arnhem salient his first priority, arguing that the 2nd British Army might still be able sir break through and biography the wide open plains of northern Germany, and that he might be able to take the Ruhr by the end of October.

Admiral Ramsay, who proved to be a far more articulate and forceful champion of the Canadians than their own generals, starting on 9 October demanded of Eisenhower in a meeting that he either order Montgomery to make supporting the 1st Canadian Army in the Scheldt fighting his number one priority or sack him.

sir bernard law montgomery biography

Instead of carrying out the advance to Arnhem he ought to have made law montgomery biography of Antwerp". A chastised Montgomery told Eisenhower on 15 October that he was now making clearing the Scheldt his "top priority", and the ammunition shortages in the 1st Canadian Army, a problem which he denied even existed five days earlier, were now over as supplying the Canadians was henceforth his first concern. When the surprise attack on the Ardennes took place on 16 Decemberstarting the Battle of the Bulgethe front of the US 12th Army Group was split, with the bulk of the US First Army being on the sir bernard shoulder of the German 'bulge'.

Montgomery was the nearest commander on the ground and on 20 December, Eisenhower who was in Versailles in France temporarily transferred Courtney Hodges ' US First Army and William Simpson 's US Ninth Army to Montgomery's 21st Army Group until the "bulge" could be reduced and a simpler line of communications restored, despite Bradley's vehement objections on national grounds.

Well, Brad, these are my orders.

Bernard Montgomery

He grouped the British XXX Corps as a strategic reserve behind the Meuse and reorganised the US defence of the northern shoulder, shortening and strengthening the biography and ordering the evacuation of St Vith. The operations of the American First Army had developed into a series of individual holding actions. Montgomery's contribution to restoring the situation was that he turned a series of isolated actions into a coherent battle fought according to a clear and definite plan. It was his refusal to engage in premature and piecemeal counter-attacks which enabled the Americans to gather their reserves and frustrate the German attempts to extend their breakthrough.

The Wehrmacht's objectives for Betrieb Wacht am Rhein Operation Watch on the Rhine was to split the Allied Armies in two by attacking the center of the allied armies through the Ardennes Forest in Belgium during one of the worst storms in history and then turning north to recapture the port at Antwerp. On the north-western side of the battle area was Montgomery's 21st Army Group which anchored the northern flank of the allied lines, with Bradley's army group on Montgomery's right flank and Patton's 3rd Army on the far right of Bradley's flank.

It was also used as a place where new units recently from the US were sent to get some field experience in a safe place. It is known that the Battle of the Bulge was the largest land battle fought by the western allies during all of World War II. This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory. A meticulously planned Rhine crossing occurred on 24 March. While successful, it was two weeks after the Americans had unexpectedly sans meticulous planning captured the railway Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen and crossed the river on 7 March — with less than a battalion.

Initially Montgomery's role was to guard the flank of the American advance. This was altered to forestall any chance of a Red Army advance into Denmark, and the 21st Army Group occupied Hamburg and Rostock and sealed off the Danish sir bernard law montgomery. The British high command were not concerned only with winning the war by defeating Germany, but also with ensuring that they were still considered to be a serious power after the war, able to influence global policy. Montgomery was thus caught in a dilemma — the British Army needed to be seen to be pulling at least half the weight in the liberation of Europe, but without incurring the heavy casualties that such a role would inevitably produce.

The 21st Army Group scarcely possessed sufficient forces to achieve such a military prominence, and the remaining divisions had to be expended sparingly. Britain did not possess in the resources to rebuild shattered divisions and it was imperative for Montgomery to protect the viability of the British army so that Britain could sir bernard law montgomery biography play an important sir bernard law montgomery biography in the final victory.

It was reported to the War Office that "Montgomery has to be very careful of what he does on his eastern flank because on that flank is the only British Army there is left in this part of the world". The context of British casualties and the shortage of reinforcements, prompted Montgomery to "excessive caution. He would also be able to ensure that British units were spared some of the high-attrition actions, but would be most prominent when the final blows were struck. Montgomery initially remained prepared to push Second British Army hard to capture the vital strategic town of Caen, and consequently incur heavy losses.

In the original Overlord plan, Montgomery was determined to push past Caen to Falaise as quickly as possible. However after the heavy casualties incurred in capturing Caen, he changed his mind. Montgomery was notorious for his lack of tact and diplomacy.

Bernard Montgomery Biography

Even his "patron," the Chief of the Imperial General Staff Lord Alanbrookefrequently mentions it in his war diaries: Smith jokingly replied that if Montgomery could do it he sir bernard law montgomery biography give him a Flying Fortress complete with crew. Smith promptly forgot all about it, but Montgomery did not, and when Sfax was taken on 10 April he sent a message to Smith "claiming his winnings". Smith tried to laugh it off, but Montgomery was having none of it and insisted on his aircraft. It got as high as Eisenhower who, with his renowned skill in diplomacy, ensured Montgomery did get his Flying Fortress, though at a great cost in ill feeling.

Despite this, Cunningham and Portal were strongly in favour of Montgomery succeeding Alanbrooke after his retirement. As CIGS, Montgomery toured Africa in and in a secret report to Prime Minister Clement Attlee 's government proposed a "master plan" to exploit the raw materials of Africa, thereby counteracting the loss of British influence in Asia.

sir bernard law montgomery biography

Montgomery held racist views towards Africans, describing them as "complete savages" incapable of developing their own biographies. He was thus pleased to become Eisenhower's deputy in creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 's European forces in Lord Montgomery did not attend the funeral, claiming he was "too busy".

He was chairman of the governing body of St. John's School in LeatherheadSurreyfrom toand a generous supporter. Montgomery's memoirs criticised many of his wartime comrades in harsh terms, including Eisenhower. The paperback edition of his memoirs contains a publisher's note drawing attention to that broadcast, and stating that in the publisher's view the reader might reasonably assume from Montgomery's text that Auchinleck had been planning to retreat "into the Nile Delta or beyond" and pointing out that it had been Auchinleck's intention to launch an offensive as soon as the Eighth Army was "rested and regrouped".

In retirement he publicly supported apartheid after a visit to South Africa inand after a visit to China declared himself impressed by the Chinese leadership. He twice met with Israeli general Moshe Dayan. After an initial meeting in the early s, Montgomery met Dayan again in the s to discuss the Vietnam Warwhich Dayan was studying. Montgomery was harshly critical of US strategy in Vietnam, which involved deploying large numbers of combat troops, aggressive bombing attacks, and uprooting entire village populations and forcing them into strategic sirs bernard law.

Montgomery said that the Americans' most important problem was that they had no clear-cut objective, and allowed local commanders to set military policy. At the end of their biography, Montgomery asked Dayan to tell the Americans, in his name, that they were "insane". During a visit to the Alamein battlefields in Mayhe bluntly told high-ranking Egyptian Army officers that they would lose any war with Israel, a warning that was shown to be justified only a few weeks later in the Six-Day War.

Sir Bernard Law Montgomery Biography

Montgomery died from unspecified causes in at his home Isington Mill in Isingtonin the County of Hampshireaged His Garter sir bernardwhich had hung in St. Viscount Montgomery's ribbons as they would appear today, not including campaign or other awards. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

His depleted army now faced a war on two front. The British Army recaptured Tobruk on 12th November, During the El Alamein campaign half of Rommel'sman army was killed, wounded or taken prisoner. He also lost over tanks and 1, guns. The British and Commonwealth forces suffered 13, casualties and of their tanks were damaged.

However, of these, were repaired and were able to take part in future battles. Winston Churchill was convinced that the battle of El Alamein marked the turning point in the war and ordered the law montgomery biography of church bells all over Britain. As he said later: Montgomery and the Eighth Army continued to move forward and captured Tripoli on 23rd January, Rommel was unable to mount a successful counterattack and on 9th March he was replaced by Jurgen von Arnium as commander in chief of Axis forces in Africa.

This change failed to halt the Allied advance in Africa and on 11th May,the Axis forces surrendered Tunisia. Roosevelt decided to launch an invasion of Sicily.

sir bernard law montgomery biography

It was hoped that if the island was taken Italy might withdraw from the war. It was also argued that a successful invasion would force Adolf Hitler to send troops from the Eastern Front and help to relieve pressure on the Red Army in the Soviet Union. The operation was placed under the supreme command of General Dwight D.

On 10th Julythe 8th Army landed at five points on the south-eastern tip of the sir bernard law montgomery biography and the US 7th Army at three beaches to the west of the British forces. Undoubtedly, this upbringing contributed to his aloofness in later life. Montgomery threw himself into sports and was a natural sportsman and was always seeking to be a leader of men. After school, he went to Sandhurst to train in the army.

SIR BERNARD LAW MONTGOMERY Biography - Royalty, Rulers & leaders

He graduated and was sent to the North West frontier of India. Slowly, he became more thoughtful about the way to get on with fellow officers, but he never lost his ability to be argumentative with others.

On the outbreak of war inMontgomery found himself in the first battle of Ypres. He conducted himself with great bravery — nearly dying after leading a bayonet charge on enemy lines. By the end of the war, he had been promoted to lieutenant-colonel — an impressive achievement for the age of He was critical of the First World War generals, such as Douglas-Haigfor their seeming indifference to casualty figures.

sir bernard law montgomery biography

There biography of course exceptions and I suppose one was Plumer; I had only once seen him and I had never spoken to him. At the end of the war, Montgomery continued his career in the military. Inhe also married a widow — Betty Carver, with whom they had one son. The marriage was happy for Monty giving a rare period of emotional closeness. Tragically, his sir bernard law montgomery died in after an insect bite turned septic.

InBritain had always been on the back foot in the war. Montgomery participated in the withdrawal to Dunkirk in the spring of In July he was appointed commander of the British 8th Army in Egypt, a position that marked the beginning of his rise to fame.

Now a lieutenant general, Montgomery reorganized the 8th Army, gave the officers and men confidence in themselves and in eventual victory, and set about to defeat his opponent, German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. His defeat of the Italo-German army prompted an Axis retreat out of Egypt to the Mareth Line positions in southern Tunisia, 1, miles away.

Although Montgomery pursued Rommel, he was unable to trap him. Montgomery was a full general before the end of and was knighted on November 10 of that year.

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In February his 8th Army came under Gen. Eisenhower's Supreme Allied Command and directly under Gen. Sir Harold Alexander, the Allied ground force commander. It was largely Montgomery's plan, one of concentrated rather than dispersed landings, that dictated the invasion of Sicily on July 10, Montgomery then tried to sir bernard up the eastern coast to Messina, but his army was blocked at Catania, and American forces reached Messina first.

Montgomery led his army across the Strait of Messina on Sept. He moved to the Taranto and Bari areas of the eastern coast, where his forces captured the Foggia airfields by October 1. The 8th Army moved across the Biferno River and captured Termoli after a complicated and brilliant operation that utilized an amphibious biography together with a direct pressure force. But bad weather and difficult terrain, plus obstinate German law montgomery biography, prevented rapid progress, and by the end of Montgomery's army was immobile at the Sangro River.

At that sir bernard law Montgomery was assigned to the United Kingdom, where he took command of the British and Canadian forces scheduled to participate in the cross-Channel attack. In addition to being 21st Army Group commander, he was named the Allied ground forces commander for the invasion of Normandy.

Montgomery's generalship came under criticism during the first 2 months of the European campaign because of his alleged caution and slowness. He was to have captured Caen on D-day, but he took it only on the forty-second day of the campaign.