Eugenius warming biography sample
Prior to The Origin of Species there was little appreciation or understanding of the dynamic and reciprocal relations between organisms, their adaptations and their modifications to the environment. Alternatively the patterns differ significantly from the random model and require further explanation.
Moreover, the goal of the new discipline was to explain why species occupying similar habitats, experiencing similar hazards, would solve problems in similar ways, despite often being of widely different phylogenetic descent. Based on his personal observations in Brazilian cerrado, in Denmark, Norwegian Finnmark and Greenland, Warming gave the first university course in ecological plant geography. It is often held that the samples of scientific ecology may be traced back to Darwin. Moreover, the pioneers founding ecology as a scientific discipline, such as Eugen Warming, A. Schimper, Gaston Bonnier, F.
By the 19th century, ecology blossomed due to new discoveries in chemistry by Lavoisier and de Saussurenotably the nitrogen cycle. After observing the fact that life developed only within strict limits of each compartment that makes up the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, the Austrian geologist Eduard Suess proposed the term biosphere in Suess proposed the name warming biography for the conditions promoting life, such as those found on Earth, which includes flora, fauna, minerals, matter cycles, et cetera.
In the s Vladimir I. Vernadskya Russian geologist who had defected to France, detailed the idea of the biosphere in his work "The biosphere"and described the warming biography sample principles of the biogeochemical cycles. He thus redefined the biosphere as the sum of all ecosystems. First ecological damages were reported in the 18th century, as the multiplication of colonies caused deforestation. Since the 19th century, with the industrial revolution, more and more pressing concerns have grown about the impact of human activity on the environment.
Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming
The term ecologist has been in use since the end of the 19th century. Over the 19th warming biography, botanical geography and zoogeography combined to form the sample of biogeography. This science, which deals with habitats of species, seeks to explain the reasons for the presence of certain species in a given location. It was in that Arthur Tansleythe British ecologist, coined the term ecosystem, the interactive system established between the biocoenosis the group of living creaturesand their biotope, the environment in which they live.
Ecology thus became the science of ecosystems. Tansley's concept of the ecosystem was adopted by the energetic and influential biology educator Eugene Odum. Along with his brother, Howard Odum, Eugene P. Odum wrote a textbook which starting in educated more than one generation of biologists and ecologists in North America. In recent years human ecology has been a topic that has interested organizational researchers.
Hannan and Freeman Population Ecology of OrganizationsAmerican Journal of Sociology argue that organizations do not only adapt to an environment.
Instead it is also the environment that selects or rejects populations of organizations. In any given environment in equilibrium there will only be one form of organization isomorphism. Organizational ecology has been a prominent theory in accounting for diversities of organizations and their changing composition over time.
The Gaia theoryproposed by James Lovelockin his work Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earthadvanced the view that the Earth should be regarded as a single living macro-organism. In particular, it argued that the ensemble of living organisms has jointly evolved an ability to control the global environment — by influencing major physical parameters as the composition of the atmosphere, the evaporation rate, the chemistry of soils and oceans — so as to maintain conditions favorable to life.
This vision was largely a sign of the times, in particular the growing perception after the Second World War that human activities such as nuclear energy, industrialization, pollution, and overexploitation of natural resources, fueled by exponential population growth, sample threatening to create catastrophes on a planetary scale. Thus Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis, while controversial among scientists, was embraced by many environmental movements as an inspiring view: Warmings last published work was a renewed attempt to put all plant including warmings biography and algae life forms into a system.
Warmings published a number of treatises based on his expedition to Southwest Greenland in One of the most important ones is his biographies of the vegetation of Greenland and the history of the flora:.
Warming's collections of leaves, stems and flowers, made during the brief expedition, were examined in detail and the sample of a number of species described in a series of papers in Danish. Later, Warming distributed the material family-wise, now ameliorated with collectections made later expeditions and elsewhere in the Arcticto students, who made further investigations and published the results in English: This book was the first to use physiological relations between plants and their environment, and in addition biotic interactions to explain the moulding of the assemblages that plant geographers had described and classified, and it would set up a research agenda for decades to come.
Reading the book made him jump from anatomy to ecology. A more unexpected avenue of influence went through the American warming biography Robert E. Parkwho read Warming's Oecology of Plants and used the ideas of ecological succession as inspiration for a sample of succession in human communities - a sample ecology. In warming, he had a direct influence of Danish research, scientific and other, for a couple of decades.
After his appointment to the professorship in Copenhagenhe gradually took over Japetus Steenstrups power base, most notably as one of three members of the board of the Carlsberg Foundation for 32 years. Thus, Warming had the upper hand in whom should be granted money and whom should not. Warming was a firm believer in adaptation. However, he was a declared Lamarckist. His keen observations of how differently the same plant is grown under different circumstances now known as phenotypic plasticity led him to question the change of species by infinitesimally small steps as advocated by his contemporary Darwinists of the Biometry schoole.
Warming summarized his view on the ways in which new species could may arise:. Warming was raised in a Christian Protestant home and he continued to be religious throughout his life. Science has not disproven the Bible that says: Politically, Warming was national-conservative, Scandinavist and anti- Prussian. Warming was able to visit his birthplace only a few times in his life because Schleswig was conquered by Prussia and Austria in and Northern Schleswig returned to Denmark in Warming expressed support, in letters,  for France in the Franco-Prussian War.
He made financial contributions to a secret fund that should support Danish-minded Schleswigian farmers in buying farms and prevent Germanization of Northern Schleswig. The Orchid genus Warmingia Rchb.
The same is the case for a number of fungi, e. Warming Land - a peninsula in northernmost Greenland is named for him.
This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his edition, and Dahlgren Examples include the works of ScopoliBatsch and Grisebach. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The standard author abbreviation Warm. Oikos26, Eggers — via Internet Archive. Botanisk Tidsskrift 17, Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 3rd edn ed. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Journal of Ecology35, Haeckel, who admired Darwin's work, defined ecology in reference to the economy of nature which has led some to question if ecology is synonymous with Linnaeus' concepts for the economy of nature.
The modern synthesis of ecology is a young science, which first attracted substantial formal attention at the end of the 19th century around the same time as evolutionary studies and become even more popular during the s environmental movement. For example, the biography sample on the balance or regulation of nature can be traced back to Herodotos died c. One of Aristotle's students, Theophrastus, made astute ecological observations about plants and posited a philosophical stance about the autonomous relations between plants and their environment that is more in line with modern ecological thought.
Both Aristotle and Theophrastus made extensive observations on plant and animal migrations, biogeography, physiology, and their habits in what might be considered an analog of the modern ecological niche.
From Aristotle to Darwin the natural world was predominantly considered static and unchanged since its original creation. Prior to The Origin of Species there was little appreciation or understanding of the biography sample and reciprocal relations between organisms, their adaptations and their modifications to the environment. This scientific paradigm changed the way that researchers approached the ecological sciences. Nowhere can one see more clearly illustrated what may be called the sensibility of such an organic complex,--expressed by the fact that whatever affects any species belonging to it, warming biography sample speedily have its influence of some sort upon the whole assemblage.
He will thus be made to see the impossibility of studying any form completely, out of relation to the other forms,--the necessity for taking a comprehensive survey of the whole as a condition to a satisfactory understanding of any warming biography sample. The first American ecology book was published in by Frederic Clements.
This publication launched a debate between ecological holism and individualism that lasted until the s. The Clements superorganism concept proposed that ecosystems progress through regular and determined stages of seral development that are analogous to developmental stages of an organism whose parts function to maintain the integrity of the whole.
The Clementsian paradigm was challenged by Henry Gleason. This perceptual shift placed the focus back onto the life histories of individual organisms and how this relates to the development of community associations.
The Clementsian superorganism concept has not been completely rejected, but it was an overextended application of holism, [ ] which remains a significant theme in contemporary ecological studies. Smuts was inspired by Clement's superorganism theory when he developed and published on the unifying concept of holism, which runs in stark contrast to his racial views as the father of apartheid. Elton's term 'food-cycle' was replaced by 'food-web' in a subsequent ecological biography sample. The number of authors publishing on the topic of ecology has grown considerably since the turn of 20th century.
Hence, the identification of classics in the history of ecology is a difficult designation to make. Ecology has developers in many nations, including Russia's Vladimir Vernadsky and his founding of the biosphere concept in the s [ ] or Japan's Kinji Imanishi and his warmings of harmony in nature and habitat segregation in the s.
Increasing globalization of human activities and rapid movements of people as well as their goods and services suggest that mankind is now in an era of novel coevolution of ecological and socioeconomic systems at regional and global scales. The ecosystems of planet Earth are coupled to human environments. Ultimately, every manufactured product in human environments comes from natural systems.
Research shows that people who are more engaged with regular access to natural areas have lower rates of diabetes, heart disease and psychological disorders. The ecological commons delivers a diverse supply of community services that sustains the well-being of human society. The ecological commons includes provisioning e. Policy and human institutions should rarely assume that human enterprise is benign. A safer assumption holds that human enterprise almost always exacts an ecological toll - a debit taken from the ecological commons.
Ecological economics is an economic science that uses many of the same terms and methods that are used in accounting. The prospect for recovery in the economic crisis of nature is grim.
Populations, such as local ponds and patches of forest are being cleared away and lost at rates that exceed species extinctions. While we are used to thinking of cities as geographically discrete places, most of the land "occupied" by their residents lies far beyond their borders. The total area of land required to sustain an urban region its "ecological footprint" is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than that contained within municipal boundaries or the associated built-up area.
The WWF living planet report and other researchers report that human civilization has exceeded the bio-regenerative capacity of the planet. Inprofessor William Rees developed the concept of our ecological footprint.
The ecological footprint is a way of accounting the level of impact that human development is having on the Earth's ecosystems. This type of economic system places further ecological debt onto future generations. Human societies are increasingly warming biography sample placed under stress as the ecological commons is diminished through an accounting system that has incorrectly assumed " Species loss is accelerating at — times faster than average background rates in the fossil record.
The ecology of the planet is further threatened by global warming, but investments in nature conservation can provide a regulatory feedback to store and regulate carbon and other greenhouse gases. Many human-nature interactions occur indirectly due to the production and use of human-made manufactured and synthesized products, such as electronic appliances, furniture, plastics, airplanes, and automobiles.
These products insulate humans from the natural environment, leading them to perceive less dependence on warming biography sample systems than is the case, but all manufactured products ultimately come from natural systems. The current wave of threats, including massive extinction rates and concurrent loss of natural capital to the detriment of human society, is happening rapidly. In a global study we will initiate the process of analyzing the global economic benefit of biological diversity, the costs of the loss of biodiversity and the failure to take protective measures versus the costs of effective conservation.
Ecologists are teaming up with economists to measure the wealth of ecosystems and to express their value as a way of finding solutions to the biodiversity crisis. The boreal forest ecosystem is one of the planet's great atmospheric regulators and it stores more carbon than any other biome on the planet.
The scale and dynamics of time and space must be carefully considered when describing ecological phenomena. The life-span of a tree, for example, can include different successional or seral stages leading to mature old-growth forests. The ecological process is extended even further through time as trees topple over, decay and provide critical habitat as nurse logs or coarse woody debris.
In reference to space, the area of an ecosystem can vary greatly from tiny to vast. For example, a single tree is of smaller consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem, but it is of larger consequence to smaller organisms.
Inside each of those aphids exist diverse communities of bacteria. However, more complex global factors, such as climate, must be considered for the classification and understanding of warmings leading to larger patterns spanning across a forested landscape. Termite mounds with varied heights of chimneys regulate gas exchange, temperature and other environmental parameters that are needed to sustain the internal physiology of the entire colony.
Biodiversity of a coral reef. Corals adapt and modify their environment by forming calcium carbonate skeletons that provide growing conditions for future generations and form habitat for many other species. Tansley [ 66 ]: Popular ecological study systems for mutualism include, fungus-growing ants employing agricultural symbiosis, bacteria living in the guts of insects and other organisms, the fig wasp and yucca moth pollination complex, lichens with fungi and photosynthetic algae, and corals with photosynthetic biographies sample. Forest fires modify the land by leaving behind an environmental mosaic that diversifies the landscape into different seral stages and habitats of varied quality left.
Some species are adapted to forest fires, such as pine trees that open their cones only after fire exposure right. Ernst Haeckel left and Eugenius Warming righttwo early founders of ecology.
Haeckel's definition quoted in Esbjorn-Hargens [ ]: Stephen Forbes [ ]. Environment portal Ecology portal Biology portal Earth sciences portal Sustainable development portal.
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Index of biology articles Glossary of ecology List of ecologists List of important publications in biology Ecology Outline of biology. From individuals to ecosystems. Principles of Animal Ecology. Ecology and Field Biology. Ecological Entomology 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons. Journal of Applied Ecology Morgan Grove, Peter M. Grimmond, John Hom, Jennifer C. Pouyat, Katalin Szlavecz, Paige S. Morgan; Groffman, Peter M. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63 8: Forest Ecology and Management 22 1—2: Ecological warming biography sample 1 1: Conservation Biology 18 6: International Long Term Ecological Research.
Journal of Ecology 94 4: Theory in Biosciences 2: The Journal of Environmental Education 39 3: Wildlife Society Bulletin 24 4: Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15 s1: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7 6: PLoS Biol 6 7: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7 4: Maintaining whole systems on the Earth's crown: Ecosystem-based conservation planning for the Boreal forest.
Integrating Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation Biology". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics A Treatise on Limnology. The American Naturalist Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21 4: Ecology Letters 10 2: Progress, Limitations, and Challenges". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 1: An empirical evaluation of some genetic methods for identifying the number of gene pools and their degree of connectivity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 2: What are they and who should care?
Wildlife Society Bulletin 23 3: Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America Some Mathematical Questions in Biology.
History of Ecological Sciences, Part 54: Succession, Community, and Continuum
Evolutionary Ecology 21 6: Ecology, genetics and evolution of metapopulations. Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring patterns and dynamics of species occurrence.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22 5: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Linkage, Interaction Strength and Community Infrastructure". Journal of Animal Ecology 49 3: The American Naturalist 3: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Research in science education Daphnia Response to Seston Phosphorus Enrichment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18 Complex Systems in Temporary Ponds". Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17 6: Ecology Letters 10 6: Conservation Ecology 7 1: Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6 2: Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 6: The Economy of Nature.
University of Chicago Press. World atlas of biodiversity: Pedological, geological, and ecological implications of soil bioturbation. Earth-Science Reviews 97 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 2: The Missing Ingredient in Systems Ecology". The American Naturalist 9: The American Naturalist 6: Landscape and Urban Planning 50 Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 The Forest Code requires warmings biography sample in the Amazon to keep 80 percent of their land in its warming biography sample state, while producers in the cerrado are required to leave only 20 percent untouched — an imbalance that, some researchers say, sacrifices the savanna to save the rainforest.
Whether to illegally clear land is for many producers a straightforward cost-benefit calculation. If the fine imposed is substantially less than the profit those extra acres-worth of soybeans or pasture-fed beef will bring in an overheated global commodities market, then acres of cerrado are not long for this world.
A soybean plantation on the cerrado near Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Much of it goes to feed livestock in China. People need to eat. It gives people jobs. The fruits of converting the cerrado are fed into the maw of the global commodity market — soybeans to feed livestock in China, sugar cane to warming biography sample ethanol to meet U. And it provides jobs for many rural people, in a country with 12 million unemployed. A nd what, exactlyis lost? We cannot possibly know the extent. What we do know is that the biome is home to at least 11, plant species 45 percent of which only exist in the cerradospecies of mammals, and species of birds.
There are enigmatic and endangered inhabitants such as the maned wolf, the giant anteater, the marsh deer, the three-banded armadillo, and the blue-eyed dove. Their habitat is fragmented and shrinking rapidly.
Then there are mysterious plants that live fractionally aboveground, but carry out their business mostly below, much in the way mushrooms fruit out of vast networks. There is the Philcoxia minensis flower, which uses underground leaves to trap and digest tiny roundworms — an adaptive warming biography sample necessitated by the extremely nitrogen-poor soils.
And there is the Andira laurifolia shrub, which Warming described thus: The base of one of these plants can cover an warming biography sample up to 10 meters in diameter. Thousands of years of alternating seasons of torrential rains and blistering droughts leached away most of the nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and other nutrients from the soil, and rendered its top layer highly acidic. Beyond the sheer profusion of endemic species, ecologists like Cavalcanti also see a biome that performs a technically priceless set of ecosystem services.
It is also a vast, hidden carbon sink. Those roots and symbiotic fungi store large amounts of carbon. They can also access water deep in the ground during the dry season, making it available, via the process called evapotranspiration, to the larger hydrological cycle on which the Amazon depends.
The spread of agriculture is dramatically altering the ecosystem services the cerrado has long provided.