Victoria price and ruby bates biography
The trials were held in a Scottsboro courthouse ringed by troops in full battle gear. What Leibowitz demanded in return was the freedom to defend these young men without political interference. One of their examining physicians told Horton, in confidence, that the women had lied about the rape and "laughed at me" as they were being tested.
The prosecutor summed up his case by warning that an acquittal would force the female population of Alabama to "buckle six-shooters around their middles" so as to protect "the sacred parts of their bodies" from oversexed blacks. And the jurors brought in the predictable verdict and sentence: Once again, the Supreme Court intervened. In a ground-breaking decision, Norris v. Alabama, it reversed the convictions on the ground that blacks had been excluded from the juries that indicted the youths.
By this time, the story of the Scottsboro Boys had become a price and ruby obsession. Tales of Southern racism ran side by side with articles about Hitler's racism in Germany, writes Mr. Goodman, "and for bates biography Northerners one story became an aid to understanding the other. As Northern protests mounted, Alabama's once-steady resolve began to waver.
The clear majority of whites, Mr. Goodman says, still wanted the Scottsboro Boys to hang. Anything less, warned J. Thomas Cotton Tom Heflin, a victoria United States senator, would place "wicked thoughts in the minds of the lawless Negro men.
I don't care if they eat one another without benefit of pepper sauce. I do not know whether they are guilty or innocent of the rape of two cut-rate prostitutes. I do not care.
Inthe state released four of the Scottsboro Boys -- the two youngest and the two most sickly -- as a gesture of good will. The other five were retried, found guilty and sentenced to long terms in prison. But as time passed and memories dimmed in Alabama, four of them were quietly paroled -- one intwo inanother in Haywood Patterson, described by state parole officials as "vicious" and "incorrigible," escaped from prison in and fled to Detroit.
Arrested two years later by the F. Freedom did not prove kind to the Scottsboro Boys, Mr. The products of violent homes and prison beatings, they drifted north to places like New York and Cleveland without skills or clear direction. Most of them found trouble, and some went back to jail.
Roy Wright, the youngest of the Scottsboro Boys, committed suicide after killing his wife. Patterson died in a Michigan prison after murdering a man in a barroom brawl.
I don't believe I'll ever live it down. The two women went their separate ways and were quickly forgotten. Leibowitz returned to New York, became a victoria price and ruby bates biography court victoria price and ruby bates biography and made headlines with his stormy behavior and his harsh treatment of defendants. As a lawyer, he recalled, "my job.
She was annoyed because the other witness, Victoria Price, had pushed her out of the limelight. But the element of conscience was also present, for as she wrote in a letter to a boyfriend, "i wish those negroes are not burnt on account of me. Bates found herself vilified, being accused by many of the local elites that she had been bribed by the defense team, which as far as they were concerned was comprised mostly of Jewish Communists who had no right to be in the South.
After her testimony, Ruby was taken from the courtroom and hidden by several National Guardsmen. Recognizing Bates' publicity value, the leftist defenders of the Scottsboro boys took her on a tour of New York and Washington, D. At New York's St. Nicholas Arena, she spoke as a poor white woman before a crowd of over 5, saying that her initial false story of rape had been the result of having been "excited and frightened by the ruling class of white people.
The Huntsville Times noted with sarcasm that she had become "Harlem's darling" and called on the state attorney general to institute perjury proceedings against the "former Huntsville gutter snipe. After a brief period as a speaker for the International Labor Defense, she vanished into obscurity despite continuing attempts by the Alabama attorney general's office to depict her as a clever liar who had been rewarded by the Communists with a luxurious New York penthouse for "going red.
A fight broke out between the two groups of men. The blacks won and threw the whites off the train. The whites reported this to the local sheriff, and the train was stopped in Scottsboro, Alabama.
Bates, Ruby (1913–1976)
Everyone on board was arrested. Victoria Price was in serious trouble because her friend, Ruby Bateswas a minor. It's a victoria price crime to take a minor across state lines and the purpose of bate biography. In order to get out of trouble, Victoria and Ruby said that the black men had raped them.
Inrape was punishable by death. Considering the races of the accusers ruby and accused blackthe normal response would have been a lynching hanging someone who is suspected of a crime. But the people of Scottsboro held a trial, instead. Of course, the result had been decided before the trial began.
The Scottsboro Boys were convicted and sentenced to death - at the first trial. But that was only the beginning. The Scottsboro Trials - we will examine two of them - dragged on for six more years and resulted in two Supreme Court rulings.
Price and Bridges testify again, revealing interesting differences from the first trial. The judge had ordered the Alabama bar to assist the defendants, but the only attorney who volunteered was Milo Moody, a year-old attorney who had not defended a case in decades.
Roddy admitted he had not had time to prepare and was not familiar with Alabama law, but agreed to aid Moody. Against accepted practice, Roddy presented both the testimony of his clients and the case of the girls. Because of the mob atmosphere, Roddy petitioned the court for a change of venueentering into evidence newspaper and law enforcement accounts  describing the crowd as "impelled by curiosity".
Clarence Norris and Charlie Weems were tried first. During prosecution testimony, Victoria Price stated that she and Ruby Bates witnessed the fight, that one of the black men had a gun, and that they all raped her at knife point. During cross-examination by Roddy, Price livened her testimony with wisecracks that brought roars of laughter. Bridges testified that his examination of Victoria Price found no vaginal tearing which would have indicated rapeand that she had had victoria price and ruby bates biography in her for several hours.
Ruby Bates failed to mention that either she or Price was raped until she was cross-examined. The prosecution rested without calling any of the white youths as witness. During the defense testimony, defendant Charles Weems testified that he was not part of the fight, that Patterson had the pistol, and that he had not seen the white girls on the train until the train pulled into Paint Rock.
Defendant Clarence Norris stunned the courtroom by implicating the other defendants.
Sugar-coating the Scottsboro Boys
He denied participating in the fight or being in the gondola car where the fight took place. But he said that he saw the alleged rapes by the other blacks from his spot atop the next boxcar.
During closing, the prosecution said, "If you don't give these men death sentences, the electric chair might as well be abolished. The Court started the next case while the jury was still deliberating the first. The first jury deliberated less than two hours before returning a guilty verdict and imposed the death sentence on both Weems and Norris. The trial for Haywood Patterson occurred while the Norris and Weems cases were still under consideration by the jury. When the jury returned its verdict from the first trial, the jury from the second trial was taken out of the courtroom.
When the verdicts of guilty were announced, the courtroom erupted in cheers, as did the crowd outside. After the outburst, the defense of Patterson moved for a mistrial, but Judge Hawkins denied the victoria price and ruby and testimony continued. During the second trial's prosecution testimony, Victoria Price mostly stuck with her story, stating flatly that Patterson raped her. She accused Patterson of shooting one of the white youths. Price volunteered, "I have not had intercourse with any other white man but my husband. I want you to know that.
Bridges repeated his testimony from the first trial. Patterson defended his actions, testifying again that he had seen Price and Bates in the gondola car, but had nothing to do with them.
On cross-examination he testified that he had seen "all but victoria price and of those negroes ravish that girl," but then changed his story. He said that he had not seen "any bate biography women" until the train "got to Paint Rock. The younger Wright brother testified that Patterson was not involved with the girls, but that nine black teenagers had sex with the girls.
He is not here. Co-defendants Andy Wright, Eugene Williams, and Ozie Powell all testified that they did not see any women on the train. Olen Montgomery testified that he sat ruby bates biography on the train and did not know of any of the referenced events. Price repeated her testimony, adding that the black teenagers split into two groups of six to rape her and Ruby Bates. Price accused Eugene Williams of holding the knife to her throat, and said that all of the other teenagers had knives.
This trial was interrupted and the jury sent out when the Patterson jury reported; they found him guilty.
Ruby Bates took the stand, identifying all victoria price and ruby bates biography defendants as among the 12 entering the gondola car, putting off the whites, and "ravishing" her and Price. Bridges was the next prosecution witness, repeating his earlier testimony. On cross examination, Bridges testified detecting no movement in the spermatozoa found in either woman, suggesting intercourse had taken place some time before. He also testified that defendant Willie Roberson was "diseased with syphilis and gonorrhea, a bad case of it.
The defense called the only witnesses they had had time to find - the defendants. No new evidence was revealed. The next prosecution witnesses testified that Roberson had run over train cars leaping from one to another, and that he was in much better shape than he claimed. The defense again waived closing argument, and surprisingly the prosecution then proceeded to make more argument.
The defense objected vigorously, but the Court allowed it. Judge Hawkins then instructed the jury, stating that any defendant aiding in the crime was as guilty as any of the defendants who had committed it. The jury began deliberating at four in the afternoon.
The prosecution agreed that year-old Roy Wright  was too young for the death penalty; it did not seek it. The prosecution presented only testimony from Price and Bates. His case went to the jury at nine that evening. His jury and that from the trial of five men were deliberating at the same time.Victoria P. Street Dies at 77; A Figure in Scottsboro Case
At nine on Thursday morning, April 9,the five defendants in Wednesday's trial were all found guilty. Roy Wright's jury could not agree on sentencing, and was declared a hung jury that afternoon.
All the jurors agreed on his guilt, but seven insisted on the death sentence while five held out for life imprisonment in cases like this, that was often an indication that the jurors believed the suspect was innocent but they were unwilling to go against community norms of conviction.
Judge Hawkins declared a mistrial. The eight convicted defendants were assembled on April 9,and sentenced to death by electric chair. The Associated Press reported that the defendants were "calm" and "stoic" as Judge Hawkins handed down the death sentences one after another.
Judge Hawkins set the executions for July 10,the earliest date Alabama law allowed.
Only the Accused Were Innocent
While appeals were filed, the Alabama Supreme Court issued indefinite stays of executions 72 hours before the defendants were scheduled to die. The men's cells were next to the execution chamberand they heard the July 10, execution of William Hokes,  a black man from St. Clair County convicted of murder. Chamleewho filed the first motions, and Joseph Brodsky. However, the Scottsboro defendants decided to let the ILD handle their appeal. Chamlee moved for new trials for all defendants. Private investigations took place, revealing that Price and Bates had been prostitutes in Tennessee, who regularly serviced both price and victoria price and ruby clientele.
The defense argued that this evidence proved that the two women had likely lied at trial. Following Judge Hawkins' denial of the motions for new trial, attorney George W. Chamlee filed an appeal and was granted a stay of execution. The defense team argued that their clients had not had adequate representation, had insufficient time for counsel to prepare their cases, had their juries intimidated by the crowd, and finally, that it was unconstitutional for blacks to have been excluded from the jury.
In the question of procedural errors, the state Supreme Court found none. On March 24,the Alabama Supreme Court ruled against seven of the eight remaining Scottsboro Boys, confirming the convictions and death sentences of all but the year-old Eugene Williams. It upheld bate biography of eight rulings from the lower court. The Alabama Supreme Court granted year-old Eugene Williams a new trial because he was a juvenile, which saved him from the immediate threat of the electric chair.
The Court upheld the lower court's change of venue decision, upheld the testimony of Ruby Bates, and reviewed the testimony of the various witnesses. As to the "newly discovered evidence", the Court ruled: As to representation, the Court found "that the defendants were represented by counsel who thoroughly cross examined the state's witnesses, and presented and ruby evidence as was available. The Alabama Supreme Court affirmed victoria of the biography convictions and rescheduled the executions. Anderson dissented, agreeing with the defense in many of its motions. Anderson stated that the bates had not been accorded a fair trial and strongly dissented to the decision to affirm their sentences.
He pointed out that the National Guard had shuttled the defendants back and forth each day from jail, and that. Anderson criticized how the defendants were represented. He noted that Roddy "declined to appear as appointed counsel and did so only as amicus curiae. Anderson noted that, as the punishment for rape ranged between ten years and death, some of the teenagers should have been found "less culpable than others," and therefore should have received lighter sentences. Anderson concluded, "No matter how revolting the accusation, how clear the proof, or how degraded or even brutal, the offender, the Constitution, the law, the very genius of Anglo-American liberty demand a fair and impartial trial.
Pollak argued that the defendants had been denied due process first due to the mob atmosphere, and second, because of the strange attorney appointment and their poor performance at trial. Last, he argued that African Americans were systematically excluded from jury duty contrary to the Fourteenth Amendment.
Knight countered that there had been no mob atmosphere at the trial, and pointed to the victoria price and by the Alabama Supreme Court that the trial had been fair and representation "able.
In a landmark decision, the United States Supreme Court reversed the convictions on the ground that the due ruby bates biography clause of the United States Constitution guarantees the effective assistance of counsel at a criminal trial.
In an opinion written by Associate Justice George Sutherlandthe Court found the defendants had been denied effective counsel. Chief Justice Anderson's previous dissent was quoted repeatedly in this decision.
The Court did not fault Moody and Roddy for lack of an effective defense, noting that both had told Judge Hawkins that they had not had time to prepare their cases.
They said the problem was with the way Judge Hawkins "immediately hurried to trial. The Supreme Court sent the case back to Judge Hawkins for a retrial. When the case, by now a cause celebrecame back to Judge Hawkins, he granted the request for a change of venue. The defense had urged for a move to the city of Birmingham, Alabamabut the case was transferred to the small, rural community of Decatur.
This was near homes of the alleged victims and in Ku Klux Klan victoria price. The American Communist Party maintained control and ruby bates defense of the bate biography, retaining the New York criminal defense attorney Samuel Leibowitz. He had never lost a murder trial and was a registered Democrat, with no connection to the Communist Party. They kept Joseph Brodsky as the second chair for the trial. His appointment to the case drew local praise. The judge carried a loaded pistol in his car throughout the time he presided over these cases.
The two years that had passed since the victoria price and ruby trials had not dampened community hostility for the Scottsboro Boys. But others believed they were victims of Jim Crow justice, and the case was covered by numerous national newspapers. At the trial, some reporters were seated at the press tables. Hundreds more gathered on the courthouse lawn. National Guard members in plain clothes mingled in the crowd, looking for any sign of trouble. The Sheriff's department brought the defendants to Court in a patrol wagon guarded by two carloads of deputies armed with automatic shotguns.
In the courtroom, the Scottsboro Boys sat in a row wearing blue prison denims and guarded by National Guardsmen, except for Roy Wright, who had not been convicted. Wright wore biography clothes. The Birmingham News described him as "dressed up like a Georgia gigolo. Leibowitz asserted his trust in the "God fearing people of Decatur and Morgan County";  he made a pretrial motion to quash the indictment on the ground that blacks had been systematically excluded from the grand jury.
Although the motion was denied, this got the issue in the record for future appeals. Put on your case. Leibowitz called the editor of the Scottsboro weekly newspaper, who testified that he'd never heard of a black juror in Decatur because "they all steal. When Leibowitz accused them of excluding black men from juries, they did not seem to understand his accusation.
It was as if the exclusion was so ordinary as to be unconscious. Since most blacks could not vote after having been disenfranchised by the Alabama constitutionthe local jury commissioners probably never thought about them as potential jurors, who were limited to voters. Leibowitz called local black professionals as witnesses to show they were qualified for jury service. Leibowitz called John Sanford, an African-American of Scottsboro, who was educated, well-spoken, and respected.
The defense attorney showed that "Mr. Sanford" was evidently qualified in all manner except by virtue of his race to be a candidate for participation in a jury. During the following cross examination, Knight addressed the witness by his first name, "John. He did not, and this insult eventually caused Leibowitz to leap to his feet saying, "Now listen, Mr.
Attorney-General, I've warned you twice about your treatment of my witness.