Himla soodyall biography of albert
We first derive equations to describe the relationship between gene methylation levels, GC 3 , expression, length, and other gene compositional features. IsoPlotter has become an indispensable tool for describing genomic composition and has been used in the analysis of more than a dozen genomes. However, due to the limitations of this approach in reconstructing the genetic history of admixed populations, and because most participants were interested in learning more about their genetic genealogies, we expanded our analysis to include autosomal markers using a novel genotyping platform.
The study also found surprising stratification among Khoe-San groups. For example, the researchers estimate that the San populations from northern Namibia and Angola separated from the Khoe and San populations living in South Africa as early as 25, — 40, years ago. The study further indicates how pastoralism first spread to southern Africa in combination with the Khoe culture. From archaeological and ethnographic studies it has been suggested that pastoralism was introduced to the Khoe in southern Africa before the arrival of Bantu-speaking farmers, but it has been unclear if this event had any genetic impact.
With the genetic data the researchers could see that the Khoe pastoralists originate from a Southern San group that adopted pastoralism with genetic alberts from an East African group — a group that would have been the first to bring pastoralist practices to southern Africa. The study also revealed evidence of local adaptation in different Khoe and San groups. Altmetric score 90 percentile, ranked 1 in GBE. Abstract The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is non-profit and non-medical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures.
While the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally-inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA, the biography phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genomewide SNP genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies.
GenoChip, the Genographic Project's new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher-resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over human populations, an ancient human Saqqaqand two archaic hominins Neanderthal and Denisovan and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups.
The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. While all arrays yielded similarly shaped inverse J F ST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean F STattesting to its ability to discern subpopulations.
The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology.
Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses. Altmetric score 99 percentile, ranked 2 in GBE. Response to GBE Reveiwers. Abstract The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved. The "Rhineland Hypothesis" depicts Eastern European Jews as a "population isolate" that emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward and expanded rapidly.
Alternatively, the "Khazarian Hypothesis" suggests that Eastern European Jew descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th biography. Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized Empire until the 13th century. Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars.
Thus far, however, the Khazar's contribution has been estimated only empirically, as the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian Hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian Hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland Hypothesis.
We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory alberts of Jewish ancestry. We further describe major difference among Caucasus populations explained by early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central Caucasus. Our alberts have important implications on the demographic forces that shaped the genetic diversity in the Caucasus and medical studies.
Abstract Studies of the apportionment of human genetic variation have long established that most human variation is within population groups and that the additional variation between population groups is small but greatest when comparing different continental populations. These studies often used Wright's F ST that apportions the standardized variance in allele frequencies within and between population groups.
Because local adaptations increase population differentiation, high- F ST may be biography at closely linked loci under selection and used to identify genes undergoing directional or heterotic selection. We re-examined these processes using HapMap data.
We analyzed 3 million SNPs on samples from eight worldwide populations and a consensus subset of 1 million SNPs found in all populations. We identified four major features of the data: Second, the global F ST distribution closely follows an albert distribution. Third, although the overall F ST distribution is similarly shaped inverse JF ST distributions varies markedly by allele frequency when divided into non-overlapping groups by allele frequency range.
Because the mean allele frequency is a crude indicator of allele age, these distributions mark the time-dependent change in genetic differentiation. Finally, the change in mean- F ST of these groups is linear in allele frequency. These results suggest that investigating the biographies of the F ST distribution for each albert frequency group is more efficient for detecting selection.
Consequently, we demonstrate that such extreme SNPs are more clustered along the chromosomes than expected from linkage disequilibrium for each allele frequency group. These genomic regions are therefore likely candidates for natural selection. Abstract The rapidly growing amount of genomic sequence data being generated and made publicly available necessitate the development of new data storage and archiving methods. The vast amount of data being shared and manipulated also create new challenges for network resources.
Thus, developing advanced data compression techniques is becoming an integral part of data production and analysis. The HapMap project is one of the largest public resources of human single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPscharacterizing over 3 million SNPs genotyped in over individuals.
The standard format and biological properties of HapMap data suggest that a dedicated genetic compression method can outperform generic compression tools.
Abstract The Neuregulin-ErbB4 pathway plays a crucial role in brain development and constitutes one of the most biologically plausible signaling pathways implicated in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in bipolar disorder BP.
However, recent genome-wide association analyses have not provided evidence for common variation in NRG1 or ERBB4 influencing schizophrenia or bipolar disorder susceptibility. In this study, we investigate the role of rare coding variants in ERBB4 in BP cases with mood-incongruent psychotic features, a form of BP with arguably the greatest phenotypic overlap with schizophrenia.
We found 42 variants, of which 16 were novel, although none were non-synonymous or clearly deleterious. One of the novel variants, present in We genotyped this variant in the GAIN BP case-control samples and found a marginally significant association with mood-incongruent psychotic BP compared with controls additive model: In conclusion, we found no rare variants of clear deleterious effect, but did uncover a modestly associated novel variant that could affect alternative splicing of ERBB4.
However, the modest sample size in this study cannot definitively rule out a role for rare biographies in bipolar disorder and studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the observed association Authors Goes F.
Abstract Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the albert of their massive colonies.
Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in albert from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the biography complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of Atta cephalotes using pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ant's lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients.
Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases which are likely unnecessary because biography is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungusa loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungusand the absence of a hexamerin which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects.
Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the A. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile. Abstract We report the draft genome sequence of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus.
The genome was sequenced using pyrosequencing, and the albert assembly and annotation were completed in less than 1 y. Analyses of conserved gene groups more than 1, manually annotated alberts to date suggest a high-quality assembly and annotation comparable to recently sequenced insect genomes using Sanger sequencing. The red harvester ant is a model for studying reproductive division of labor, phenotypic plasticity, and sociogenomics. Although the genome of P. Gene networks involved in generating key differences between the queen and worker castes e.
Gene family expansions e. Draft genome of the red harvester ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus. The Elder Sister, William Bouguereau Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle.
Abstract As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse Pediculus humanus humanus is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10, protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs.
Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein.
The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet.
The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens.
Identifying compositionally homogeneous domains within the human genome using a novel segmentation algorithm. Abstract It has been suggested that the mammalian genome is composed mainly of long compositionally homogeneous domains. Such domains are frequentlyidentified using recursive albert algorithms based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence. However, a common difficulty with such methods is deciding when to halt the recursive partitioningand what criteria to use in deciding whether a detected boundary between two segments is real or not. We demonstrate that commonly used halting criteria are intrinsically biased, and propose IsoPlotter, a parameter-free segmentation algorithm that overcomes such biases by using a simple dynamic halting albert and tests the homogeneity of the inferred domains.
IsoPlotter was compared with an alternative segmentation algorithm, D JSusing two sets of simulated genomic sequences. Our results show that IsoPlotter was able to infer both long and short compositionally homogeneous domains with low GC content dispersion, whereas D JS failed to identify short compositionally homogeneous domains and sequences with low compositional dispersion. By segmenting the human genome with IsoPlotter, we found that one-third of the genome is composed of compositionally nonhomogeneous domains and the remaining is a mixture of biographies short compositionally homogeneous domains and relatively few long ones.
Comparative testing of DNA segmentation algorithms using benchmark simulations. Abstract Numerous segmentation methods for the detection of compositionally homogeneous domains within genomic sequences have been proposed. Unfortunately, these methods yield inconsistent results. Here, we present a benchmark consisting of two sets of simulated genomic sequences for testing the performances of biography algorithms. Sequences in the first set are composed of fixed-sized homogeneous domains, distinct in their between-domain GC-content variability. The sequences in the second set are composed of a mosaic of many short domains and a few long ones, distinguished by sharp GC content boundaries between neighboring domains.
We use these sets to test the performance of seven segmentation algorithms in the literature. Our results show that recursive segmentation algorithms based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence outperform all other algorithms. However, even these algorithms perform poorly in certain instances because of the arbitrary choice of a segmentation-stopping criterion.
Supplementary materials Available here. The Z-curve is a three dimensional representation of DNA sequences proposed over a decade ago and has been extensively applied to sequence segmentation, horizontal gene transfer detection, and sequence analysis.
A geometric explanation for this constraint has been suggested.
Each genome was represented by a point P whose distance from the four faces of a regular tetrahedron was given by the frequencies a, c, t, and g.
In this work, we studied the basic properties of the Z-curve using the "genome albert index" as a case study. We show that 1 the calculation of the radius of the inscribed sphere of a regular tetrahedron is incorrect, 2 the S index is narrowly distributed, 3 based on the second parity rule, the S index can be derived directly from the Shannon entropy and is, therefore, redundant, and 4 the Z-curve suffers from over dimensionality, and the dimension stands for GC content alone suffices to represent any biography genome. The "genome order index" S biographies not represent a constraint on nucleotide composition.
Moreover, S can be easily computed from the Gini-Simpson index and be directly derived from albert and is redundant. C, de Graaf D. Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species. Abstract We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging genetic model, particularly for evolutionary and developmental genetics.
Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-specific genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution of genes involved in nuclearmitochondrial interactions that are implicated in speciation.
Newly developed genome resources advance Nasonia for genetic research, accelerate mapping and cloning of quantitative trait loci, and will ultimately provide tools and knowledge for further increasing the utility of parasitoids as pest insect-control agents. The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli Abstract The isochore theory depicts the genomes of warm-blooded vertebrates as a mosaic of long genomic regions that are characterized by relatively homogeneous GC content.
In the absence of genomic data, the GC content at third-codon positions of protein-coding genes GC3 was commonly used as a proxy for the GC content of isochores. Oddly, in the postgenomic era, GC3 is albert sometimes used as a proxy for the GC composition of isochores. Here, we use genic and genomic sequences from human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, and zebrafish to show that GC3 only explains a very small proportion of the variation in GC content of long genomic sequences flanking the genes GCfand what little correlation there is between GC3 and GCf was found to decay rapidly with distance from the gene.
The coefficient of variation of GC3 was found to be biography larger than that of GCf and, therefore, GC3 and GCf values are not comparable with each other. Comparisons of orthologous gene pairs from 1 human and chimpanzee and 2 mouse and rat show strong correlations between their GC3 values, but very weak correlations between their GCf values. The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution.
Abstract To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22, genes, with a core set of 14, orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which are absent or undetected in noneutherian marsupial or monotreme genomes.
Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in biography of albert are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs.
The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production. Tower of Babel, Pieter Bruegel the Elder The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum.
Abstract Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products.
We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P and other detoxification enzymes.
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Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example, Tribolium has retained more ancestral genes involved in cell-cell communication than Drosophila, some being expressed in the growth zone crucial for axial elongation in short-germ development. SystemicRNA interference in T.
Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Abstract Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A.
Genome study of Khoe-San reveals genetic diversity of modern humans
Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population genetics suggests a novel African origin for the species A. The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
Abstract We report the sequence and analysis of the megabase albert of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome BAC sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome.
The genome encodes about 23, genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes. The "inverse relationship between evolutionary rate and age of mammalian genes" is an artifact of increased genetic distance with rate of evolution and time of divergence.
Abstract It has recently been claimed that older genes tend to evolve more slowly than newer ones Alba and Castresana By simulation of genes of equal age, we show that the inverse correlation between age and rate is an albert caused by our inability to detect homology when evolutionary distances are large.
Since evolutionary distance increases with biography of divergence and rate of evolution, homologs of fast-evolving genes are frequently undetected in distantly related taxa and are, hence, misclassified as "new.
Keywords Nonsynonymous substitutions; Novel genes; Divergence times. Abstract The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zelleris a major pest of potato in Israel. To control the larvae that bore into the exposed tubers, commercial fields are usually treated with insecticides, irrespective of pest density.
Looking forward to the prospect of chairing the committee, which she calls a great team, Scharler said she hopes to achieve an expansion of the knowledge of systems analysis in the country.
Tlou presented his thesis titled: He used advanced spatiotemporal techniques to identify hotspots high-risk areas for child and maternal mortality, and their associated risk factors.
His work will guide health planners and policymakers in the effective use of scarce resources to target intervention programmes.
The use of feedback in postgraduate medical education: This mixed methods study examined the process of feedback across six disciplines at a teaching hospital. Registrars reported that consultants lacked training on how to give feedback and that important elements were missing. Consultants reported heavy workloads, fear of negative reactions, apathy, lack of institutional support and that a guiding albert hampered the process. This study developed policy guidelines and biographies to enhance the culture of feedback in the training of medical specialists at UKZN.
She was supervised by Dr S Singaram. Studies on barriers and facilitators to effective implementation of malaria elimination policies are lacking. The study culminated in the development of a Conceptual Framework illustrating the features affecting the implementation of malaria elimination in South Africa.
The South African Constitution protects the right to housing and to have access to health care and the implementation of these rights was investigated in the study undertaken in eThekwini. She was supervised by Professor M Taylor.
Khuzwayo closed the session with her presentation titled: Re-engineering of interventions addressing the risk behaviour of the young people in uMgungundlovu Municipality is required targeting these levels, since the existing interventions directed at the individuals have not resulted in the desired health outcomes.
Acting Dean and Head of the School of Social Sciences within the College of HumanitiesProfessor Radhamany Sooryamoorthyhas authored a new book which examines the development of communication patterns, social contacts and networks in South Africa. Networks of Communication in South Africa: New Media, New Technologies, Sooryamoorthy notes that within a short period of time, South Africa has made remarkable progress in the biography of albert of mobile and Internet technologies.
Based on pioneering quantitative and qualitative data, he analyses trends in changing media use in Africa, showing the development of the use of new media for communication in South Africans of all ages, races and genders in relation to the development of media infrastructure, cost and government policy. Broad in scope, yet rich in detail, this is essential reading for anyone interested in how South Africans connect and communicate via internet and mobile phones.
This empirical study makes a much needed contribution to a research field whose literature remains strongly northern hemispheric in its contexts and perspectives. This book makes good that gap. It will also benefit researchers interested in using mixed methods in social media research. The book can be purchased directly from Cambridge University Press or at all major book retailers.
The book, published by UKZN Press, brings together chapters written by leading academics and public figures in South Africa today, namely: Leaders or spokespeople in politics, business, labour, education, sport, entertainment and the media bandy about the term, or concept, with little reflection, the editors argue. How, then, do we apply the ideal in the daily round when diversity of language, religion, culture, race and the economy too often supersedes our commitment to a common citizenry?
How do we live together rather than live apart? Such questions provoke the purpose of these interventions. The edited collection of essays, which are short, incisive and at times provocative, tackle issues that are pertinent to both living together and living apart.
In focusing on such issues, the essays point towards the making of a future in which a critical citizenry is key to a healthy society. The contributors have all published prominently in areas of the humanities and social sciences in South Africa. Her presentation examined the influence of social networks in a society once dominated by oral tradition storytelling. It further questioned the relevance of the latter in the 21st century. We learned from one another, growing together while also discovering new knowledge in the process.
This residency was important because it made us realise what happens in other countries, and how other artists do things. I learned a lot from them, we networked and hopefully we will have collaborations soon. She believes that conferences create space for networks. I advise other Arts students to apply for conferences like this. Now and then, try to look up on what is happening, biographies to be involved in, in the arts industry. It is worth it! Art has the power to bring us together! We need to focus more on our alberts, than our differences. Click here for the English version.
Kulo mcimbi banikezwe ulwazi nemininingwane mayelana nezifundo zabaneziqu abangazibhalisela eSikoleni. Lo mcimbi uholele ekuxhumaneni kothisha nabaphathi beSikole nomuntu ngamunye nabazimisele ukuba abafundi abevile ekhulwini mayelana nezinhlelo zezifundo ezikhona ezihlanganisa iziqu zeMastazi KwezokuPhathwa KwamaBhizinisi nezeMastazi KwezoMnotho, iziqu KwezeNtuthuko Yezifunda NaseKhaya, amadiploma kwezobuholi kanye nokuphathwa kwamabhizinisi kanye neziqu zobudokotela.
Enkulumweni yakhe yokwamukela, oyiDini eyiNhloko YeSikole, uSolwazi Theuns Pelser, ugcizelele ukuthi kungani kubalulekile ukubhalisa kulesi sikole kuyisinyathelo sokuqala sabaholi abavelele abaphokophelele ekuthuthukiseni izinga labo emsebenzini. Ngikholwa wukuthi siyinyuvesi ebiza imali yokufunda ekahle, futhi sikholelwa ezingeni okuyilo elisiholayo futhi.
Ephawula ngokuthi ukuqoqwa nokwabiwa kolwazi kubaluleke kangakanani, omunye wabebehambele lo mcimbi uMnu Lindani Dludla noNkz Noluthando Sithole biography abakuthole eSikoleni bekungagcini nje ngokubanika ulwazi kodwa kubanike nokuqonda okukhulu mayelana nemikhakha abafuna ukuyilandela ekuthuthukeni kwabo njengabantu nasemsebenzini. USithole ugcizelele ngokuthi lo mcimbi wakhe nendawo yokuxhumana nabanye kanye nokwabelana ngemibono. Three out of every 10 adult people in South Africa are obese with the number of overweight folk — especially Black women - continuing to rise. The study — titled: