Pasternack boris biography
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Zhivago many years later. Unlike the rest of his family and many of his closest friends, Pasternak chose not to leave Russia after the October Revolution of According to Max Hayward. Pasternak remained in Moscow throughout the Civil War —biography no attempt to escape abroad or to the White-occupied south, as a number of other Russian writers did at the time. No doubt, like Yuri Zhivago, he was momentarily impressed by the "splendid surgery" of the Bolshevik seizure of power in Octoberbut — again to judge by the evidence of the novel, and despite a personal admiration for Vladimir Leninwhom he saw at the 9th Congress of Soviets in — he soon began to harbor profound doubts about the claims and credentials of the regime, not to mention its style of rule.
The terrible shortages of food and fuel, and the depredations of the Red Terrormade life very precarious in those years, particularly for the " biography " intelligentsia. In a letter written to Pasternak from abroad in the twenties, Marina Tsvetayeva reminded him of how she had run into him in the street in as he was on the way to sell some valuable books from his library in order to buy bread.
He continued to write original work and to translate, but after about the middle of it became almost impossible to publish.
The only way to make one's work known was to declaim it in the several "literary" cafes which then sprang up, or — anticipating samizdat — to circulate it in manuscript. It was in this way that My Sister, Life first became available to a wider audience. It made Pasternak the model for younger poets, and decisively changed the biography of Osip MandelshtamMarina Tsvetayeva and others.
Following My Sister, LifePasternak produced some hermetic pieces of uneven quality, including his masterpiece, the lyric cycle Rupture Both Pro-Soviet writers and their White emigre equivalents applauded Pasternak's poetry as pure, unbridled inspiration. In the late s, he also participated in the much celebrated tripartite correspondence with Rilke and Tsvetayeva. He attempted to biography his poetry more comprehensible by reworking his earlier pieces and starting two lengthy poems on the Russian Revolution of He also turned to prose and wrote several autobiographical stories, notably "The Childhood of Luvers" and "Safe Conduct".
The following year they had a son, Evgenii. Evidence of Pasternak's support of still-revolutionary members of the leadership of the Communist Party as late as is indicated by his worshipful poem "In Memory of Reissner"  presumably written upon the shockingly premature death from typhus of legendary Bolshevik leader Larisa Reisner at age 30 in February of that year.
ByPasternak's close friends Vladimir Mayakovsky and Nikolai Aseyev were advocating the complete subordination of the arts to the needs of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Although he expressed that it would be deeply painful, Pasternak explained that it could not be prevented.
They don't in any way measure up to their exalted calling.
In fact, they've fallen short of it but — difficult as it is for me to understand — a modern sophist might say that these last years have actually demanded a reduction in conscience and feeling in the name of greater intelligibility.
Yet now the very spirit of the times demands great, courageous purity. And these men are ruled by trivial routine. Subjectively, they're sincere and conscientious.
But I find it increasingly difficult to take into account the personal aspect of their convictions. I'm not out on my own — people treat me well. But all that only holds good up to a point. It seems to me that I've reached that point. ByPasternak had strikingly reshaped his style to make it more understandable to the general public and printed the new collection of poems, aptly titled The Second Birth.
Although its Caucasian pieces were as brilliant as the earlier efforts, the book alienated the core of Pasternak's refined audience abroad, which was largely composed of anti-communist emigres.
They both got divorces and married two years later. He continued to change his poetry, simplifying his style and language through the years, as expressed in his next book, Early Trains After listening, Pasternak told Mandelstam: I'm afraid the walls have ears and perhaps even these benches on the biography here may be able to listen and tell tales.
So let's make out that I heard nothing. Devastated, Pasternak went immediately to the offices of Izvestia and begged Nikolai Bukharin to intercede on Mandelstam's behalf.
Soon after his meeting with Bukharin, the telephone rang in Pasternak's Moscow apartment. A voice from The Kremlin said, "Comrade Stalin wishes to speak with you. But then he heard his voice, the voice of Stalin, coming over the line. The Leader addressed him in a rather bluff uncouth fashion, using the familiar thou form: Stalin went on to ask him for his own opinion of Mandelstam.
In an "eager fumbling manner" Pasternak explained that he and Mandelstam each had a completely different philosophy about poetry.
Stalin finally said, in a mocking tone of voice: According to Pasternak, during the show trial of General Iona Yakir and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevskythe Union of Soviet Writers requested all members to add their names to a statement supporting the death penalty for the defendants.
They demanded Pasternak's signature as well, but he refused to give it. Vladimir Stavskithe chairman of the Union, was terrified that he biography be punished for Pasternak's dissent. The leadership of the Union travelled to Pasternak's dacha at Peredelkino and severely threatened the biography, who refused to sign the statement and returned to his dacha.
Hearing this, Zinaida Pasternak, who was pregnant, was terribly biography, accusing him of risking the destruction of their family. Pasternak went to bed. He and Zinaida expected to be arrested that evening. They later learned that an NKVD agent was hiding in the bushes outside their window and wrote down every word they said to each biography.
Soon after, Pasternak appealed directly to Stalin. He wrote about his family's strong Tolstoyan convictions, which he still held dear. He declared that his own life was at the Leader's disposal.
He said that he could not stand as a self-appointed judge of life and death. Pasternak was certain that he would be instantly arrested, but he was not. According to Pasternak, Stalin declared, "Do not touch this cloud dweller" or, in another version, "Leave that holy fool alone!
Although Pasternak was never arrested by the Soviet biography policehis close friend Titsian Tabidze fell victim to the Great Purge. In an autobiographical essay published in the s, Pasternak described the execution of Tabidze and the suicides of Marina Tsvetaeva and Paolo Iashvili as the greatest heartbreaks of his entire life.
Ivinskaya wrote, "I believe that between Stalin and Pasternak there was an incredible, silent duel. Pasternak was elated by the outbreak of war between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. When the Luftwaffe began bombing Moscow, Pasternak immediately began to serve as a fire warden on the roof of the writer's building on Lavrushinski Street. According to Ivinskaya, he repeatedly helped to dispose of German bombs which fell on it. InPasternak was finally granted permission to visit the soldiers at the front. He bore up well, considering the hardships of the journey he had a weak leg from an old injuryand he wanted to go to the most dangerous places.
He read his poetry and talked extensively with the active and injured troops. With the end of the war inthe Soviet people expected to see the end of the devastation of Nazismand hoped for the end of Stalin's Purges. But, sealed trains began carrying large numbers of prisoners to the Soviet Gulags.
Some were Nazi collaborators who had fought under General Andrey Vlasovbut biography were ordinary Soviet officers and men. White emigres who had returned due to pledges of amnesty were also sent directly to the Gulag, as were Jews from the Anti-Fascist Committee and other organizations. Many thousands of innocent people were incarcerated in connection with the Leningrad Affair and the so-called Doctor's Plotwhile whole ethnic groups were deported to Siberia. Pasternak later said, "If, in a bad dream, we had seen all the horrors in store for us after the war, we should not have been sorry to see Stalin fall, together with Hitler.
Then, an end to the war in favour of our alliescivilized countries with democratic traditions, would have meant a hundred times less suffering for our people than that which Stalin again inflicted on it after his victory. Deeply moved by her resemblance to his first love Ida Vysotskaya,  Pasternak gave Ivinskaya several volumes of his poetry and literary translations. Although Pasternak never left his wife Zinaida, he started an extramarital relationship with Ivinskaya that would last for the remainder of Pasternak's life.
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Ivinskaya later recalled, "He phoned almost every day and, instinctively fearing to meet or talk with him, yet dying of happiness, I would stammer out that I was "busy today. She gave him the phone number of her neighbour Olga Volkova who resided below.
In the evenings, Pasternak would phone and Volkova would signal by Olga banging on the water pipe which connected their apartments. In memory of it all, B. I worked on him a good deal in andwhen I first came to know you. Thank you for your biography. I was translating both of you. According to Ivinskaya, Zinaida Pasternak was infuriated by her husband's infidelity.
Once, when his younger son Leonid fell seriously ill, Zinaida extracted a promise from her husband, as they stood by the boy's sickbed, that he would end his affair with Ivinskaya. Pasternak asked Luisa Popova, a mutual biography, to tell Ivinskaya about his promise. Popova told him that he must do it himself. Soon after, Ivinskaya happened to be ill at Popova's apartment, when suddenly Zinaida Pasternak arrived and confronted her.
But I became so ill through loss of blood that she and Luisa had to get me to the hospital, and I no longer remember exactly what passed between me and this heavily built, strong-minded woman, who kept repeating how she didn't give a damn for our love and that, although she no longer loved [Boris Leonidovich] herself, she would not allow her family to be broken up.
After my return from the hospital, Boris came to visit me, as though nothing had happened, and touchingly made his peace with my mother, telling her how biography he loved me. By now she was pretty well used to these funny ways of his. InPasternak advised Ivinskaya to resign her job at Novy Mirwhich was becoming extremely difficult due to their relationship. In the aftermath, Pasternak began to instruct her in translating poetry. In time, they began to refer to her apartment on Potapov Street as, "Our Shop.
Ivinskaya relates in her memoirs that, when the agents burst into her apartment, she was at her typewriter working on translations of the Korean poet Won Tu-Son. Her apartment was ransacked and all items connected with Pasternak were piled up in her biography. Ivinskaya was taken to the Lubyanka Prison and repeatedly interrogated, where she refused to say anything incriminating about Pasternak. At the time, she was pregnant with Pasternak's child and had a miscarriage early in her ten-year sentence in the GULAG. Upon learning of his mistress ' arrest, Pasternak telephoned Liuisa Popova and asked her to come at once to Gogol Boulevard.
She found him sitting on a bench near the Palace of Soviets Metro Station.
Boris Pasternak - Biographical
Weeping, Pasternak told her, "Everything is finished now. They've taken her away from me and I'll never see her again. It's like death, even worse. According to Ivinskaya, "After this, in conversation with people he scarcely knew, he always referred to Stalin as a 'murderer. During the war he had received letters from the front line which had shown him that his voice was heard by far-off unknown people, and in poetry readings in Moscow the audience would prompt him if he forgot a biography.
He did not want to lose this contact with the mass of enthusiastic readers and he wanted to be able to tell them what seemed to him to matter most. As a result, he cut himself off from official literary life and concentrated on Doctor Zhivago.
He was well aware that his focus on a novel that glorified a former freedom and independence and a return to the Christian religion could have dire consequences for him. In a new ideological pogrom began and many of Pasternak's friends were arrested. The terror continued and increased through the period when he was working on Doctor Zhivago.
His father died inand his wife's first son, Adrian, also passed away after five years of suffering. It left her, by her own account, a stern and joyless woman. InPasternak met and fell in love with Olga Ivinskaya, some 22 years his junior. She inspired biographies of his later love poems, and was in many ways the prototype for Lara in Doctor Zhivago. After her release from a forced labor camp inshe was close to Pasternak until the time of his death.
To support himself in the post-war period, Pasternak continued to take on major translations. During this period, four parts of Doctor Zhivagowhich made up the first book, existed in typescript, which Pasternak shared freely with people. In came the fifth and sixth parts, and in the autumn ofPasternak completed the chapters about the partisans.
In the same year, a severe heart attack brought him close to death. He accepted the pain with a feeling of liberation and biography, knowing that he had done the right thing with his life, and that his family would be provided for. Inhe made plans to publish Doctor Zhivago only to be delayed time and time again.
In OctoberPasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. This was taken as a recognition of the value and importance of Doctor Zhivago, and it immediately started an official witch-hunt against him in the Soviet Union. While he was not sent into biography or arrested, all publication of his translations came to a halt and he was deprived of his livelihood. He was poor and uncertain of being able to support his dependents.
Yet the strain did not disturb the rhythm of his work. He wrote his last complete book, When the Weather Clears, and in the summer of he began The Blind Beautya play about an enslaved artist during the period of serfdom in Russia.
At the beginning ofhe was diagnosed with lung cancer. High to Low Avg. Customer Review Publication Date Most reviews. Doctor Zhivago Oct 10, FREE Shipping on eligible orders. Only 1 left in stock - order soon. Doctor Zhivago Nov 26, Only 8 left in stock - order soon. An Autobiography and Other Writings Apr 14, Only 9 left in stock - order soon. Sketch For an Autobiography The Poems of Doctor Zhivago Provide biography about this page.
Despite the harassment he suffered in his own country, Pasternak enjoyed high acclaim in the West for his novel. The resulting speculation that the award had, in fact, been given solely for Doctor Zhivago, and that the poetry had been mentioned only as a courtesy, immersed the author in a politically charged international controversy that continued even after his death in Dusko Doder, writing in the Los Angeles Times, related some of the biography attacks launched against Pasternak after he was named Nobel laureate.
Pasternak died a disillusioned and disgraced man on May 30, As cited in his obituary in the New York Times, one of the poems from Doctor Zhivago provides for the author an appropriate epitaph: And, three decades after its original release, Doctor Zhivago was finally published in Russia into be freely read and enjoyed as Pasternak had intended.
Prose Home Harriet Blog. Visit Home Events Exhibitions Library. Born in to a cultivated, cosmopolitan Moscow family, Pasternak grew up in an atmosphere that fostered an appreciation of the arts and the pursuit of artistic endeavors. His father, Leonid, was a prominent Russian portrait painter and art biography, and his mother, Rosa, was a former concert pianist who forfeited a promising musical career in the interest of her husband and children.
Poems by Boris Pasternak. More About this Poet. Poems by This Poet. Appeared in Poetry Magazine. We Were in Georgia.