Ziyad ibn abi sufyan biography of william
North gate of the city of Resafa , site of Hisham's palace and court. The island would remain in Muslim hands until Under Governor Yusuf bin Umar, the postal department of Iraq cost 4,, dirhams a year.
He is also said to have had a reputation for biography. Many Muslims of Kufa, in Iraqwhich had been the stronghold of his father Ali, assured Husayn that they would support him if he bid for the caliphate. Based on this information, Husayn decided to march against Yazid. He started from Mecca and headed towards Kufa. Husayn neared Kufa and found that he had thoroughly overestimated his support in the city, which was held fast against him.
At the Battle of KarbalaOctober 10,he and his warriors were all killed. Shi'a Muslims, the partisans of Ali, say that Husayn and his men performed miracles of bravery and defiance during this unequal battle.
Husayn's head was taken on a stick to Yazid. Husayn's physical resemblance to his grandfather was a matter of public comment. Many recalled how fond Muhammad had been of his grandchildren, of whom he often took care. For many Shi'a, Yazid is the consummate villain, who will always be remembered for his impiety and usurpation. The events at Karbala figure prominently in Shi'a thought, and many Shi'a Islamist movements liken their causes to Husayn's struggle against Yazid. Leaders of the Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi government frequently drew such comparisons.
The tenth of Muharram also known as Aashurahthe Islamic calendar date on which the Battle of Karbala occurred, is commemorated as a day of mourning by Shi'a Muslims around the world. Shi'a rituals on Aashurah usually involve public processions during which Shi'a curse Yazid and recite poems geared at remembering Husayn and his death. Many are also seen to hurt themselves as a form of punishment for the lack of help given to Husayn when he needed it most.
The majority Sunni position on Yazid and the Battle of Karbala is varied. Though Sunnis generally agree that Yazid was not a biography william caliph, they differ on the nature of Husayn's opposition to Yazid's rule and Yazid's culpability in Husayn's death.
Some Sunni authorities have claimed that Husayn opposed Yazid's ascension to the caliphate but did not actively revolt against him, and that Husayn's killing was ordered not by Yazid but by the Umayyad governor of Iraq Ubaidallah ibn Ziyad. Others have refrained from taking a position on the matter, claiming that although Husayn's martyrdom was an unfortunate event, the william on exactly how it occurred and who bears responsibility is too inconclusive to merit judgment.
Upon hearing this, the people of Eastern Persia and Kerman protested and refused to pay the kharaj land tax. Ziyad succeeded at this and stayed on as governor in Estakhr.
After two years, Muawiyah and Ziyad reached an agreement: This act was then and later considered a scandal in Islam, criticised in contemporary satire and by the 13th-century historian Ibn al-Athir. Ziyad's first act in Basra was to deliver a khutbah from the pulpit.
Ziyad ibn Abih
This speech promised that Umayyad jurisprudence would be swift and talionic: Whoever drowns another will himself be drowned; whoever burns another will be burned; whoever biographies william into a house, I will break into his heart; and whoever breaks into a grave, I will bury him alive in it. Do not be carried away by your hatred and anger against me; it would go ill with you.
I see many heads rolling. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. View Biographies Related To Categories poetry. Learn More in these related articles: Help us improve this biography william Contact our editors with your feedback. Keep Exploring Britannica Voltaire. Although only a few of his works are still read, he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty American folksinger who moved from folk to rock music in the s, infusing the lyrics of rock and roll, theretofore concerned mostly with boy-girl romantic innuendo, with the intellectualism of classic After their failure, and faced with a large-scale Christian uprising in the form of the MardaitesMuawiyah concluded a peace with Byzantium.
Muawiyah also oversaw military expansion in North Africa the foundation of Kairouan and in Central Asia the conquest of KabulBukharaand Samarkand. Following Muawiyah's death inhe was succeeded by his son, Yazid I. The hereditary accession of Yazid was opposed by a number of prominent Muslims, most notably Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayrson of one of the companions of Muhammadand Husayn ibn Aligrandson of Muhammad and younger son of Ali.
The resulting conflict is known as the Second Fitna. In Ibn al-Zubayr fled Medina for Mecca. Hearing about Husayn's opposition to Yazid Ithe people of Kufa sent to Husayn asking him to take over with their support. Al-Husayn sent his cousin Muslim bin Agail to verify if they would rally abi him. Ubayd-Allah bin Ziyad managed to disperse the crowd who gathered around Muslim bin Agail and captured Muslim bin Agail.
Realizing Ubayd-Allah bin Ziyad was instructed to prevent Husayn from establishing support in Kufa, Muslim bin Agail requested a message to be sent to Husayn to prevent his immigration to Kufa.
While Ibn al-Zubayr would stay in Mecca until his death, Husayn decided to travel on to Kufa with his family unbeknownst to the lack of support in Kufa. There were people in Husayn's caravan, many of whom were women including his sisters, wives and daughters and children. The women and children from Husayn's camp were taken as prisoners of war and led back to Damascus to be presented to Yazid I.
They remained imprisoned until public opinion turned against him as word of Husayn's death and his family's capture spread. They were then granted passage back to Medina.
The sole adult male survivor from the caravan was Ali inb Husayn who was with fever to too ill to fight when the caravan was attacked. Following the death of Husayn, Ibn al-Zubayr, although remaining in Mecca, was associated with two opposition movements, one centered in Medina and the other around Kharijites in Basra and Arabia. Because Medina had been home to Muhammad and his family, including Husayn, word of his biography of william and the imprisonment of his family led to a large opposition movement.
InYazid dispatched an army to subdue both movements. The army suppressed the Medinese opposition at the Battle of al-Harrah ; the Grand Mosque in Medina was severely damaged and widespread pillaging caused deep-seated biography of william. Yazid's army continued on and laid siege to Mecca. At some point during the siege, the Kaaba was badly damaged in a fire. The destruction of the Kaaba and Grand Mosque became a major cause for censure of the Umayyads in later histories of the period.
Yazid died while the siege was still in progress, and the Umayyad army returned to Damascus, leaving Ibn al-Zubayr in control of Mecca. Yazid's son Muawiya II —84 initially succeeded him but seems to have never been recognized as caliph outside of Syria. Two factions developed within Syria: The partisans of Marwan triumphed at a battle at Marj Rahitnear Damascus, inand Marwan became caliph shortly thereafter. Marwan's first task was to assert his authority against the rival claims of Ibn al-Zubayr, who was at this time recognized as caliph throughout most of the Islamic world. Marwan recaptured Egypt for the Umayyads, but died inhaving reigned for only nine months.
Marwan was succeeded by his son, Abd al-Malik —who reconsolidated Umayyad control of the caliphate. Al-Mukhtar hoped to elevate Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyahanother son of Ali, to the caliphate, although Ibn al-Hanafiyyah himself may have had no connection to the revolt.
The troops of al-Mukhtar engaged in battles both with the Umayyads, inat the river Khazir near Mosul: InUmayyad troops reconquered Iraq, and in the same army captured Mecca. Ibn al-Zubayr was killed in the attack. The second major event of the early reign of Abd al-Malik was the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Although the chronology remains somewhat uncertain, the building seems to have been completed inwhich means that it was under construction during the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr.
This had led some historians, both medieval and modern, to suggest that the Dome of the Rock was built to rival the Kaaba, which was under the control of Ibn al-Zubayr, as a destination for pilgrimage. Abd al-Malik is credited with centralizing the administration of the Caliphate, and with establishing Arabic as its official language.
He also introduced a uniquely Muslim coinage, marked by its aniconic decoration, which supplanted the Byzantine and Sasanian coins that had previously been in use.
Зияд ибн Уммея
Abd al-Malik also recommenced offensive warfare against Byzantium, defeating the Byzantines at Sebastopolis and recovering control over Armenia and Caucasian Iberia. Many Iraqis remained resistant to Umayyad rule, and al-Hajjaj imported Syrian troops to maintain order, whom he housed in a new garrison town, Wasit. These troops became crucial in the suppression of a revolt led by an Iraqi general, Ibn al-Ash'athin the early eighth century.
Al-Walid was succeeded by his brother, Sulayman —17whose reign was dominated by a protracted siege of Constantinople. The failure of the siege marked the end of serious Arab ambitions against the Byzantine capital. However, the first two decades of the eighth century witnessed the continuing expansion of the Caliphate, which pushed into the Iberian Peninsula in the west, and into Transoxiana under Qutayba ibn Muslim and northern India in the east. Sulayman was succeeded by his cousin, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz —20whose position among the Umayyad caliphs is somewhat unique.
Khalifa Ali bin Abu Talib - Muawiyah
He is the only Umayyad ruler to have been recognized by subsequent Islamic tradition as a genuine caliph khalifa and not merely as a worldly king malik. Umar is honored for his attempt to resolve the fiscal problems attendant upon conversion to Islam. During the Umayyad period, the majority of people living within the caliphate were not Muslim, but ChristianJewishZoroastrianor otherwise.
These religious communities were not forced to convert to Islam, but were subject to a tax jizyah which was not imposed upon Muslims. This situation may actually have made widespread conversion to Islam undesirable from the point of view of state revenue, and there are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions. It is not clear how Umar attempted to resolve this situation, but the sources portray him as having insisted on like treatment of Arab and non-Arab mawali Muslims, and on the removal of obstacles to the conversion of non-Arabs to Islam.
Yazid is best known for his " iconoclastic edict ", which ordered the destruction of Christian images within the territory of the Caliphate. Inanother major revolt arose in Iraq, this time led by Yazid ibn al-Muhallab.
The final son of Abd al-Malik to become caliph was Hisham —43whose long and eventful reign was above all marked by the curtailment of military expansion. North gate of the city of Resafasite of Hisham's palace and court. Hisham established his court at Resafa in northern Syria, which was closer to the Byzantine border than Damascus, and resumed hostilities against the Byzantines, which had lapsed following the failure of the last siege of Constantinople.
The new campaigns resulted in a number of successful raids into Anatoliabut also in a major defeat the Battle of Akroinonand did not lead to any significant territorial expansion.
Hisham's reign furthermore witnessed the end of expansion in the west, following the defeat of the Arab army by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in In a major Berber Revolt broke out in North Africa, which was subdued only with difficulty.
In the Caucasusthe confrontation with the Khazars peaked william Hisham: The conflict was arduous and bloody, and the Arab army even suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Marj Ardabil in Marwan ibn Muhammad, the biography Marwan II, finally ended the war in with a massive invasion that is reported to have reached as far as the Volgabut the Khazars remained unsubdued. Hisham suffered still worse defeats in the east, where his armies attempted to subdue both Tokharistanwith its center at Balkhand Transoxianawith its center at Samarkand.
Both areas had already been partially conquered, but remained difficult to govern. Once again, a particular difficulty concerned the question of the conversion of non-Arabs, especially the Sogdians of Transoxiana. Following the Umayyad defeat in the " Day of Thirst " inAshras ibn 'Abd Allah al-Sulami, governor of Khurasanpromised tax relief to those Sogdians who converted to Islam, but went back on his offer when it proved too popular and threatened to reduce tax revenues.
Discontent among the Khurasani Arabs rose sharply after the losses suffered in the Battle of the Defile inand inal-Harith ibn Surayj led a revolt that received broad backing from Arabs and natives alike, capturing Balkh but failing to take Merv.