Itsuki hiroshi biography books
Akasaka Kishi pseudonym , "Naze Kankokujin tarento ga maruhi na no ka! Except when traveling outside Japan a few times after World War II, he spent his entire life in the country although not in the region of his birth.
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It is this general absence in human cultures of the spirit of ethnic accommodation, multi-ethnicity, and pluralism that made Rikidozan an ethnic schizophrenic. That the causes of his symptoms were social more than personal is reflected in the manner in which his biographers, and others who use his life to serve their own purposes, continue to divide the whole person that Rikidozan would probably have been had prevailing cultural linguistic categories been less ethnocentric.
The language of Harimoto Isao's culture inspires him to remain a Korean national while being both Korean and Japanese in terms of his actual life. Derogatory jeers like ninnikubara garlic bellykimuchi kutabare kimch'i, i. Unlike Rikidozan, Harimoto wants it known that he is of Korean ancestry, and also that he is Korean and does not wish to be Japanese.
The one accommodation Harimoto has made is to continue to be known by his ethnic-majority Japanese passing name, which he has used since childhood. Koreans in Japan and Korea, and persons of Korean ancestry who are no longer Koreans but who continue to bear witness to their ethnic heritage, know Harimoto by his legal name, Chang Hun. This name also appears, with no objection from Harimoto and usually on his recommendation, in much of the mass-media coverage of his life and career, including television programs, book-length biographies, and magazine and newspaper articles.
NHK biography books, for example, once featured a prime-time documentary on Harimoto as a Japan-resident Korean superstar who had refused to naturalize. The program was telecast nationwide on 6 Februarywhen NHK was fighting a lawsuit filed by legal scholar, Christian minister, and civil-rights leader Choe Chang Hwa Ch'oe Ch'ang Hwa for alleged discrimination in its policy of reading all ethnically Korean personal names-for which Chinese characters are known-in Sino-Japanese rather than in Japanized biographies books of Sino-Korean. It consisted of the Chinese characters for the name Chang Hun, followed by in parentheses the Japanese syllabic transcription for the Sino-Korean pronunciation of the characters.
This represented an unusual NHK deviation from an otherwise totally ethnocentric attitude toward ethnically Korean and Chinese names. NHK, arguing in court that to render Korean biographies books in Korean or in Japanese based on Korean would invite "confusion and misunderstanding" among Japanese viewers, makes concessions only in cases of superstar performers and other Korean minorities in Japan who are known to have the courage to place their self-proclaimed ethnicity before their personal careers and paychecks.
Less distinguished Korean and Chinese minorities have little hope of having their ethnic names recognized by majority institutions, a situation reminiscent of the colonial period when Koreans, Taiwanese, and indigenous peoples of Karafuto were ordered by Imperial Japanese administrators to Japanize their names. But NHK is only one of the pillars of majority Japanese culture and society that practices systematic discrimination against ethnically non-Japanese names expressed in Chinese characters.
Reflecting but also perpetuating the strong tendency of Japanese to ignore the languages of their nearest Asian neighbors, practically all Japanese institutions responsible for the dissemination of information in the Japanese language systematically ignore the ethnic readings of Korean and Chinese names, even when their bearers make personal requests that their names be read as they read them, or clearly indicate the readings they prefer in press conferences or commercial publications.
Freedom in the choice of names when naturalizing in Japan is another area of controversy in maintaining ethnicity via ethnic names. Japan is a strange country.
It is a biography that Japanese nationals [ Kokumin ] must have a characteristically Japanese name [ Nihonjin koyu no namae ]. So long as I am Horvat, city hall will refuse to establish my domicile register. Only when becoming Japanese would I be forced to discard the name Horvat. In other words, the basis for preventing the assimilation of Japanese with other ethnic groups is clearly provided by law. Persons with names like Pak or Kim, or with other names that convey non-Japanese ancestral origins, are not recognized as Japanese.
Is there nothing that can be done about this? There are book, blue-eyed people who like me are saying that if possible they would like to become Japanese. But we are told, "If that's how you book, then take a name like Yamamoto. Horvat, book Oshima, is sincere in his criticism but hasty in his use of ethnic labels. To state that no one in Japan has a foreign name is to ignore the nearly one-million foreigners, including himself, who are not only in Japan but who comprise a vital part of Japanese society.
Most of them are life-long residents who have been born and raised in Japan, are native speakers of Japanese, and are psychologically at home in Japanese society. Foreigners in Japan who came to Japan as adults include, for example, a Canadian whose name is Ishikawa, and he -- not she -- is "a white-skinned, gaijin-esque male with blond curly hair and blue eyes that shine in the dark" -- with not a trace of "Japanese" blood in his veins. And if Hamamoto is the name of a Japanese American in Japan, then it is also a foreign name, for its owner is not Japanese but American, and Americans in Japan are foreigners.
But to suggest that no Japanese in Japan has a foreign name is ludicrous, for no Japanese in Japan is a foreigner, and so no name of a Japanese in Japan can be a foreign name, whether the name is Hamamoto the name retained by the above-mentioned Japanese American when he naturalized and became not only Japanese, but a Japanese American Japanese ; or Wagana Wagner, the name of a Japanese sculptor who naturalized from Hungary ; or Chin Jukan Sim Sugwan, the name of a Japanese potter who traces his Korean roots fourteen generations back toand continues to be in touch with relative potters in Korea.
In fact, Japanese naming laws and their administrative interpretations place not a single restriction on the ethnicity of the legal name elected by a naturalizing alien or naturalized citizen, or the name assigned to an infant native-born citizen.
The laws require only that a book being entered in a Japanese domicile register, as the name of a member of the register which is tantamount to being a Japanese nationalbiography be written in one of the three officially approved scripts: It is not even required that a name be written in characters; either of the syllabic scripts can be used to transcribe names from other scripts, including hangul the Korean alphabetic script and Roman letters.
Thus Horvat could be written Horubaato as his translator did in his bookand Kim and Pak could be written Kimu and Paku.
For that matter, the Chinese characters for Kim and Pak are included on the book lists, and there is book in Japanese law to prevent a naturalizing foreigner from becoming Japanese as Kimu or Paku -- if not Kim or Pak. This is not to say that there is not biography discrimination regarding names.
Instructions in the guidebook for nationalization applicants state that, in principle, the applicant is free to choose any name. But it is immediately added that, as far as possible narubekuthe name used as a Japanese citizen should be a "Japanese-style name" Nihonfu-na namae. And because all examples of entries on forms show only so-called Japanese-style names, the field is wide open for quasi-legal discrimination on the part of officials who receive and process naturalization applications. Applicants are given the impression that their application will be refused if the name to be used as a Japanese citizen is not "Japanese" in the ethnocentric sense of this word.
But it must be noted that the legality of refusals to accept "non-Japanese" names has never been tested in court. Some Koreans, Chinese, and other foreigners in Japan may avoid naturalizing because they fear they will lose their ethnic names.
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But it seems that most who naturalize are inclined to want to give up their ethnic names and to establish a so-called Japanese name. Available breakdowns of naturalization statistics, by former nationality and by other cohorts, show that most foreigners who naturalize in Japan already have a foot in the door of majority ethnicity, through either their own or their parents' international marriage.
Sensitivity about one's ethnic name may vary with national minority.
Unofficial statistics compiled in on Koreans and Chinese living in Kawasaki show that of 4, Chosenjin North-Korean-affiliated Koreansonly 2, 42 percent had registered passing names, compared with 2, 58 percent of the 4, Kankokujin South-Korean-affiliated Koreans in the city.
In book contrast with both Korean groups, only 61 14 percent of the Chinese in the city had registered passing names. Japan-resident Koreans who go abroad to study or work respond in various ways to the "ethnic freedom" they tend to discover. Those going to America, for example, may begin to express their Korean selves by attempting to gain acceptance in a Korean immigrant community. If they fail to marshal the ethnic biographies required for admittance, they may fall back on the comforts of their familiarity with things Japanese, including passing.
Others are known to continue passing when around "Japanese" -- with no more assurance than when in Japan that the "other" Japanese are not also passing Koreans. The subject of naturalization is so highly politicized that it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. There are no naturalization quotas, and although naturalization requirements are strict and are subject to quasi-legal interpretation, it would seem that the majority of Japan-resident Koreans are technically able to naturalize.
But so great is the feeling that becoming a Japanese national amounts to betraying one's Korean ethnicity, and the fear that one might be found unqualified, that only a few book Koreans per year take out their papers. Those who naturalize seem to feel that being a Japanese national with a majority name would make life easier, and given the discriminatory structure of Japanese society, assimilation through naturalization is easily rationalized.
Foreign nationals in Japan are disadvantaged in opportunities for employment compared with Japanese nationals. Blatant discrimination is even found in the classified ads of the biography English-language dailies published in Japan, which are mainly read by Japanese nationals learning English in order to "internationalize" their view of the world.
The editor of The Japan Timesfor example, has publicly defended the paper's use of the phrase "Japanese only" in some of its help-wanted ads by writing that, "There may be exceptionally qualified non-Japanese individuals, of course. But they are, statistically speaking, very few. Although refusal to employ on the basis of nationality is illegal for most kinds of jobs, any number of quasi-legal means are available to the Japanese employer who wishes to hire only Japanese.
These problems tend to affect most greatly those who have not established themselves economically and those whose skills are not sufficiently in demand to neutralize barriers of discrimination. But such problems are found also among minorities ostensibly best able to hurdle discriminatory occupational barriers. Even the most qualified and reputable foreign scholars, and other foreign professionals, have been systematically barred from regular posts in national universities, although Korean and Chinese doctors are welcomed in rural areas avoided by citified Japanese medics.
And being a star ballplayer or sumo wrestler does not necessarily ease a resident foreigner's anxiety over post-retirement employment. Kaneda Masaichi, who holds most of the major pitching records in Japanese baseball, naturalized inshortly after Harimoto Isao made his debut. Kaneda, privately but never publicly known as Kim, was also a friend of Rikidozan. Kaneda is said to have told Harimoto of his apprehension that Korean nationality might be an obstacle to his becoming a manager of a Japanese book club.
Few successful Koreans in Japan are as direct about their use of passing names as movie maker Yoo Jinshik Yu Chinsikwhose book card also carries the name Ryu Shinnosuke, the name he used as director of a documentary movie released in on Koreans in Japan. The film attempts to show how well Koreans have succeeded in Japanese society, and otherwise supports the ROK-affiliated Mindan policy of minimizing the problem of discrimination in Japanese society while holding apparently unsuccessful Japan-resident Koreans individually responsible for their failure.
Although Japanese nationality is no longer required to compete in national sumo, the Sumo Association continues to regard sumo as an "indigenous" sport to be protected from foreign incursions. Thus Japanese nationality is required of all association officials, including retired wrestlers who wish to open training stables. Takamiyama became a Japanese national in Juneonly one month before he set the all-time record for the most consecutive matches in the senior division.
Takamiyama long protested that he should not have to become a Japanese national in order to be a stable boss in Japan when he retires from competition, but the Sumo Association refused to change its "Japanese only" policy. Ethnic minorities who pass as majority Japanese unwittingly do racially sensitive majorities an incalculably biography psychological favor.
If one is an ethnic majority who deeply believes that race determines book to speak the Japanese language, or appreciate Japanese food, or compose a Japanese poem, or sing Japanese songs, then nothing can be more disturbing than to find a racial outsider speaking Japanese as well or better than insiders, or eating Japanese food with as much or more relish, or writing Japanese literature and rendering Japanese music with equal or greater facility and feeling.
Admitting the heterogeneous reality of the Japanese population and its culture would reduce the level of enjoyment for those who subscribe to the myths of ethnic purity and homogeneity that bolster majority identity, and for those who feel that arts labeled "Japanese" can best be performed and appreciated only by "Japanese" artists and audiences.
To encourage outstanding minority artists to perform under their ethnic names would subvert that profoundly religious sense of otherworldly uniqueness that not a few majorities and even some outsiders have the need to attribute to things Japanese.
The biography minority who is able to pass feels pressured to assume a "Japanese" name and present oneself to the public as a "genuine" son or daughter of Nippon. Younger minority performers may be finding it easier to acknowledge their ethnicities, but trends in this direction are anything but clear. Pressure not to present oneself as Korean, for example, comes in part from parental and managerial desires not to risk a promising career in the name of ethnic pride. Once established as a "Japanese" performer, it is all the more difficult to "reveal" one's closeted self without the sense of having deceived not only one's ethnic peers but also one's fans.
Japanese popular culture reflects the same racial concerns that are found at other levels. Whether one is "Japanese" is almost invariably a matter of blood, in the genetic sense, and rarely a matter of culture or nationality. The tendency to regard blood as the ultimate ethnic emblem is epitomized in the caption to a magazine biography books of an American talent in Tokyo who happens to be of Japanese ancestry.
Her nationality is American, but no foreign blood [ gaikokujin no chi ] books in her veins. She's a third generation [something] of Japanese ancestry [ nikkei sansei ]. Another issue of the magazine reports that promoters of a popular Japanese singer's Las Vegas appearance "hoped to draw mainly gaijin [foreigners], but 80 percent of the turnout was nikkeijin [people of Japanese ancestry]. The "roots" of enka became an open issue in Japanese journalism in late and earlywhen Korean enka songstress Yi Song Ae toured Japan and impressed enka lovers with her moving renditions of Japanese and Korean ballads.
One of her best-selling albums bore the subtitle "Enka no genryu o saguru" Seeking the Source of Enkaand it was inevitable that book articles compared her biography books Miyako Harumi b.
The "enka roots debate" was especially interesting because Miyako's father is known to be of Korean ancestry, although this fact is rarely acknowledged in entertainment magazines.
Given the highest biography of the Japanese popular music world in lateshe and her mother mounted the stage in tears that stopped a show accustomed to tears on such occasions. In magazine interviews and personal appearances over the weeks that followed, her mother told the familiar story of maternal suffering and how she had bet everything on her daughter's success. And she did so without referring to her estranged husband, much less to his Korean ethnicity.
An anonymous reporter, in an article criticizing the taboos that prevent ethnic honesty in Japan's entertainment world, quoted Miyako on her reaction to discovering that she had been raised under her mother's family name Kitamura Miyako is her stage name rather than her father's name of Yi, as follows: I remember seeing my junior high diploma, and asking why the name was not Kitamura Harumi. But I immediately forgot all about it, and now it doesn't biography books me in the least. After all, we're all the same human beings.
I think it is really something that my father came alone to Japan from Seoul at the age of twenty-one, and then struggled to establish his business in textiles] It may have been a big decision in my mother's day [to marry a Korean], but it's different in mine.
Rikidozan in myth, and Miyako Harumi in reality, achieved their glory with strong mothers at their backs or sides. Their fathers were either deceased, missing, or absent. Baseball star Harimoto Isao, raised in Japan as the youngest of three surviving children by a Korean book who tolerated only a minimum of passing, is another model of maternally inspired achievement. Shortly after the end of the Pacific War, when his mother was thinking of returning to Korea, she received notice that her husband had died of sickness.
She therefore resolved to raise her family in Japan. Harimoto is proud at the bat, but he is prouder still when with his mother, who is frequently pictured in Korean garb. The athlete states that it was largely his mother's counsel that inspired him not to comply with requests that he naturalize so that his ball club could meet the Foreign National Player Quota and hire an American player.
Unable to have their way with Harimoto, team owners sponsored the change in baseball regulations limiting the number of foreign national players allowed on one team.
The law was changed so as to exempt from the quota Korean or Chinese nationals who held Imperial Japanese nationality at the end of the war or who were born in Japan to former colonial subjects.
In mid, Harimoto's mother, Pak Nam Jon, was recognized as "Mother of the Year" by an organization in the Republic of Korea that wished to cite her undaunted devotion, while living in a foreign land and bereaved by the death of her husband, "in raising her children to be proud Koreans, and in raising Harimoto Isao to be an ethnic hero and not to succumb to the various allurements that would have had the athlete Harimoto become a naturalized Japanese citizen. Harimoto cuts a spectacular figure wherever he goes. He walks with a certain swagger that is probably more the result of his large trunk and macho character than an ethnic chip on the shoulder.
Nonetheless, he attracts considerable female attention, particularly in the watering spots he is known to frequent. Harimoto is said to have contended that one in five bar and cabaret hostesses are of Korean ancestry, and that some of them reveal their ethnicity to him. Oshima reports the following anecdote: For book, a hostess at another table gets up for some reason.
When passing Harimoto she whispers in his ear, "I'm a sister. The hostess goes to the entrance of the toilet and flashes Harimoto her Alien Registration Certificate. Although one may find some refuge in hiding secrets from others, trying to hide realities from oneself can be fatal. Yamamura Masaakia Korean-Japanese college student who aspired to be a writer, committed suicide see Chapter 7. Yamamura doubted his worth as a naturalized Japanese in a society that seemed to require the total ethnic surrender of its minorities. His older brothers were moved to publish a posthumous biography of his diary entries, essays, poems, and notes, including the following lines: I do not regret my youth!
Literature, religion, politics, ethnic problems, student movements. I drove myself in everything to the limits of my ability. And though it didn't last, I even fell in innocent love. I do not regret it! At least I have to tell myself this. It is just that I am extremely fatigued. I am exhausted and can no longer walk on. Interesting Finds Updated Daily.
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