Pericles biography resumen
In response to Sparta's request for help, Athens' leader, Cimon , led troops into Sparta. Updated August 17,
The opposing faction, now in power, was the democratic.
A descendant of democracy's founder CleisthenesPericles came to power in about The office of military biography resumen or strategosusually translated into English as general, was elected.
Pericles was elected strategos for the next 29 years. From aboutPericles had the Long Walls built between Athens and the Piraeus, a peninsula with three harbors about 4. On the acropolis, Pericles had built a giant statue of Athena Promachus, the Parthenon, and the Propylaea.
Pericles (c. 495 - 429 B.C.)
He also had temples and shrines built to other gods to replace those that had been destroyed by the Persians during the wars. The treasury from the Delian alliance funded the building projects. In or Pericles carried a law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides. No source provides any background to this proposal; it is not even clear whether it was retroactive.
A correct assessment is vital for understanding Pericles, but explanations vary considerably; some argue that Pericles was merely forging a low-level political weapon for use against Cimon, who had a foreign biography resumen. The upper classes certainly had no prejudice against foreign marriages; the lower classes may well have had more, and, on the whole, it is possible to view Pericles here as championing exclusivist tendencies against immigrants who might break down the fabric of Athenian society.
One hundred years later, an orator argued for firm distinctions of status on the ground that the law provided biography resumen the poorest Athenian girl with a dowry in the form of her citizenship. The law also may have passed because of a general wish to restrict access to the benefits of office and public distributions, but there was never any disposition on the part of Athenians to restrict economic opportunities for foreigners—who served in the fleet, worked on public buildings, and had freedom of trade and investment, with the crucial, but normal, exception of land and houses.
Cimon died afterduring his last campaign against Persia. The policy of war biography resumen Persia was abandoned and a formal biography resumen probably made. The Persian Warbegun as an ill-considered gesture incould be considered ultimately successful. The city of Athens, however, was physically still much as it had been left by the Persian sack ofand its gods were inadequately housed. If peace with Persia did not end the alliance, it may have ended the annual tribute paid to that treasury.
Whether to regain this tribute, or simply to assert Athenian leadership, Pericles summoned a conference of all Greek states to consider the questions of rebuilding the Greek temples destroyed by the Persians, the payment of sacrifices due to the gods for salvation, and the freedom of the seas.
Sparta would not cooperate, but Pericles continued on the narrower basis of the Athenian alliance. Tribute was to continue, and Athens would draw heavily on the reserves of the alliance for a magnificent building program centred on the Acropolis. In work started on the temple later known as the Parthenon and on the gold and ivory statue of Athena by Phidiaswhich it was to house; the Acropolis project was to include, among other things, a temple to Victory and the Propylaea startedthe biography resumen gateway, far grander and more expensive than any previous Greek secular building.
There was domestic criticismhowever. Thucydides, son of Melesias not the historian and a relative of Cimon, who had inherited some of his political support, denounced both the extravagance of the project and the immorality of using allied funds to finance it.
Pericles argued that the allies were paying for their defense, and, if that was assured, Athens did not have to account for how the money was actually spent. The argument ended in ostracism in ; Thucydides went into exile for 10 years, leaving Pericles unchallenged.
Biography of Pericles
It cannot be determined biography resumen the glamour of the project had completely caught Athenian biography resumen or whether Pericles was now simply thought to be indispensable. Plutarch attributed to Pericles a desire to stimulate economic activity and employment in Athens, but these motives may be anachronistic and in actuality may not have influenced the voters very much.
There was also some initial allied resentment at the continuation of tribute, and some scattered revolts. Pericles met the situation in part by extending a network of Athenian settlements throughout what may now be called the empire, thus strengthening Athenian control and providing new land for the growing Athenian population. In establishing one of these, Pericles engaged in his most admired campaign, the expulsion of barbarians from the Thracian Chersonese Gallipoli.
A more serious crisis came in orhowever, when the cities of Boeotiaunder Athenian control sincebeat a small Athenian army and successfully revolted.
Biografia de Pericles
Euboeacrucial to Athenian control of the sea and food supplies, and Megara soon followed suit. The strategic importance of Megara was immediately demonstrated by the appearance, for the first time in 12 years, of a Spartan army north of the Isthmus in Attica.
Pericles thought and acted swiftly. The details were never fully known, but, possibly by bribery and certainly by negotiation, it was arranged that Athens biography resumen give up its mainland possessions and confine itself to a largely maritime empire.
For Athens, the essential loss was that of Megara, which meant that a Spartan army could appear in Attica at any time. Large knowledge and natural ability to make fine speeches of Pericles in form and deep content.
His gait was measured, clothing has always been correct folds, it has always remained calm and balanced. In his youth, Pericles was afraid of being ostracized because he was rich, belonged to the noble rolu and his friends were the most influential people in the State.
In addition, said Pericleslike the tyrant once ruled Athens Peisistratos. Aged even amazed at how his voice and manner of speech resembled the speech of the Athens of Pericles tirana. Boyazn exile forced to biography resumen away from public affairs. But he participated in numerous campaigns and distinguished valor and bravery. When Pericles was young, the leader of the Democratic Party was Ephialtes, on the proposal which had been deprived of power aristocratic council - Areopagus. Pericles was a close friend of Ephialtes and held the same political beliefs. It is unnecessary to give a detailed account of all that he did to make his native city the most glorious in the ancient world.
Greek architeture and sculpture under his biography resumen reached perfetion. To Pericles Athens owed the Parthenon, the Propylae, the Odeum and numberless other public and sacred edifices; he also liberally encouraged music and the drama, and, during his rule, industry and commerce were in so flourishing a condition, that prosperity was universal in Attica.
At length in B. With the circumstances that led to it we have not here to do, but as it terminated most disastrously for Athens, it is but right to say that Pericles was not to blame for the result. Had the policy that he recommended been pursued, one can scarcely doubt that Athens, with her immense resources, would have been the victor, and not the vanquished, in the struggle.