Sarwoto atmosutarno biography of mahatma
Tendulkar with his Mahatma. He took these back to India in According to Gandhi, "no religious tradition could claim a monopoly over truth or salvation".
He attempted to find the most non-violent vegetarian meal that the poorest human could afford, taking meticulous notes on vegetables and fruits, and his observations with his own body and his ashram in Gujarat.
His experiments with food began in s and continued for several decades. He believed that each vegetarian should experiment with his or her diet because, in his studies at his biography he saw "one man's food may be poison for another".
Gandhi championed animal rights in general. Other than making vegetarian choices, he actively campaigned against dissection studies and experimentation on live animals vivisection in the name of science and medical studies. He wrote, "Vivisection in my opinion is the blackest of all the blackest crimes that man is at present committing against god and his fair creation. Gandhi used fasting as a political device, often threatening suicide unless demands were met. Congress publicised the fasts as a political action that generated widespread sympathy.
In response the government tried to manipulate news coverage to minimise his challenge to the Raj. He fasted in to protest the voting scheme for separate political representation for Dalits; Gandhi did not want them segregated.
The British government stopped the London press from showing photographs of his emaciated body, because it would elicit sympathy. Gandhi's hunger strike took place during a two-year prison term for the anticolonial Quit India mahatma. The government called on nutritional experts to demystify his action, and again no biographies mahatma were allowed. However, his final fast inafter the end of British rule in India, his hunger strike was lauded by the British press and this time did include full-length photos.
Alter states that Gandhi's fasting, vegetarianism and diet was more than a political leverage, it was a part of his experiments with self restraint and healthy living. He was "profoundly skeptical of traditional Ayurveda", encouraging it to study the scientific method and adopt its progressive learning approach. Gandhi believed yoga offered health benefits. He believed that a healthy nutritional diet based on regional foods and hygiene were essential to good health. Gandhi strongly favoured the emancipation of women, and urged "the women to fight for their own self-development.
At various occasions, Gandhi credited his orthodox Hindu mother, and his wife, for first lessons in satyagraha. Some historians such as Angela Woollacott and Kumari Jayawardena state that even though Gandhi often and publicly expressed his belief in the equality of sexes, yet his vision was one of gender difference and complementarity between them. Women, to Gandhi, should be educated to be better in the biography mahatma realm and educate the next generation. His views on women's right were less liberal and more similar to puritan-Victorian expectations of women, states Jayawardena, than other Hindu leaders with him who supported economic independence and equal gender rights in all aspects.
Gandhi's experiment with abstinence went beyond sex, and extended to food. He consulted the Jain scholar Rajchandra, whom he fondly called Raychandbhai. Gandhi began abstaining from cow's milk inand did so even when doctors advised him to consume milk. Gandhi tried to test and prove to himself his brahmacharyaless than a year before his assassination in January In Februaryhe asked his confidants such as Birla and Ramakrishna if it would be wrong for him to experiment his brahmacharya oath.
He progressed from first letting different volunteers to sleep in the same room but different beds, then later in the same bed but clothed, and finally sleeping naked. Those who went public said they felt they were sleeping with their ageing mother. According to Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in his final year of life was an ascetic, looked ugly and a sickly skeletal biography of mahatma, already caricatured in the Western media. However, Gandhi said that if he would not let Manu sleep with him, it would be a sign of weakness.
Gandhi spoke out against untouchability early in his life. One of the major speeches he made on untouchability was at Nagpur inwhere he called untouchability as a great evil in Hindu society. In his remarks, he stated that the phenomena of untouchability is not unique to the Hindu society, but has deeper roots because Europeans in South Africa treat "all of us, Hindus and Muslims, as untouchables; we may not reside in their midst, nor enjoy the rights which they do". He stated this practice can be eradicated, Hinduism is flexible to allow this, and a concerted effort is needed to persuade it is wrong and by all to eradicate it.
According to Christophe Jaffrelot, while Gandhi considered untouchability is wrong and evil, he believed that caste or class are based neither on inequality nor on inferiority. Every individual regardless of his or her background, stated Gandhi, has a right to choose who they welcome into their home, who they befriend and who they spend time with. InGandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he started referring to as Harijans or "the children of god". Ambedkar and his allies felt Gandhi was being paternalistic and was undermining Dalit political rights.
Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy".
InAmbedkar announced his intentions to leave Hinduism and join Buddhism. These views contrasted with those of Ambedkar. Gandhi and his colleagues continued to consult Ambedkar, keeping him influential. Ambedkar worked with other Congress leaders through the s, wrote large parts of India's constitution in late s, and converted to Buddhism in However, Gandhi's approach to untouchability was different than Ambedkar because Gandhi championed fusion, choice and free intermixing.
Ambedkar, in contrast states Jeffrelot, envisioned each segment of society to maintain their identity group, and each group then separately advanced the "politics of equality". The criticism of Gandhi by Ambedkar continued to influence the Dalit movement past Gandhi's death.
According to Arthur Herman, Ambedkar's hate for Gandhi and Gandhi's ideas was so strong that after he heard the news of Gandhi's assassination, remarked after a momentary silence a sense of regret and then "my real enemy is gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over now".
Gandhi rejected the colonial Western format of education system. He stated that it led to disdain for mahatma work, generally created an elite administrative bureaucracy.
Gandhi favoured an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work, one that included physical, mental and spiritual studies. His methodology sought to treat all professions equal and pay everyone the same. Gandhi called his ideas Nai Talim literally, 'new education'. He believed that the Western style education violated and destroyed the indigenous cultures.
A different basic education model, he believed, biography mahatma lead to better self awareness, prepare people to treat all work equally respectable and valued, and lead to a society with less social diseases. Nai Talim evolved out of his experiences at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi attempted to formulate the new system at the Sevagram ashram after In his autobiography, Gandhi wrote that he believed every Hindu boy and girl must learn Sanskrit because its historic and spiritual texts are in that language.
Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence. Military is unnecessary, because any aggressor can be thrown out using the method of non-violent non-co-operation. While military is unnecessary in a nation organised under swaraj principle, Gandhi added that a police force is necessary given human nature. However, the state would limit the use of weapons by the police to the minimum, aiming for their use as a restraining force. According to Gandhi, a non-violent state is like an "ordered anarchy".
On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter for human duties.
Swaraj to Gandhi did not mean transferring colonial era British power brokering system, favours-driven, bureaucratic, class exploitative structure and mindset into Indian mahatmas. He warned such a transfer would still be English rule, just without the Englishman. Democracy meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression. For Gandhi, democracy was a way of life. Some scholars state Gandhi supported a religiously diverse India,  while others state that the Muslim leaders who championed the partition and creation of a separate Muslim Pakistan considered Gandhi to be Hindu nationalist or revivalist.
In an interview with C. Andrews, Gandhi stated that if we believe all religions teach the same message of love and peace between all human beings, then there is neither any rationale nor need for proselytisation or attempts to convert people from one religion to another. In Gandhi's biography mahatma, those who attempt to convert a Hindu, "they must harbour in their breasts the belief that Hinduism is an error" and that their own religion is "the only true religion". He stated that spiritual studies must encourage "a Hindu to become a better Hindu, a Mussalman to become a better Mussalman, and a Christian a better Christian.
According to Gandhi, religion is not about what a man believes, it is about how a man lives, how he relates to other people, his conduct towards mahatmas, and one's relationship to one's conception of god.
Gandhi believed in sarvodaya economic model, which literally means "welfare, upliftment of all". To both, according to Bhatt, removing poverty and unemployment were the objective, but Gandhian economic and development approach preferred adapting technology and infrastructure to suit local situation, in contrast to Nehru's large scale, socialised state owned enterprises.
To Gandhi, the economic philosophy that aims at "greatest good for the greatest number" was fundamentally flawed, and his alternative proposal sarvodaya set its aim at "greatest good for all". He believed that the best economic system not only cared to lift the "poor, less skilled, of impoverished background" but also empowered to biography the "rich, highly skilled, of capital means and landlords". Violence against any human being, born poor or rich, is wrong believed Gandhi.
Gandhi challenged Nehru and the modernizers in the late s who called for rapid industrialisation on the Soviet model; Gandhi denounced that as dehumanising and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived. Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries. Gandhi refused to endorse the view that economic forces are best understood as "antagonistic class interests". Further, believed Gandhi, that in a free mahatma, victims exist only when they co-operate with their oppressor, and an economic and political system that offered increasing alternatives gave power of choice to the poorest man.
While disagreeing with Nehru about socialist economic model, Gandhi also critiqued capitalism that was driven by endless wants and a materialistic view of man. This, he believed, created a vicious vested system of materialism at the cost of other human needs such as spirituality and social relationships.
A better economic system is one which does not impoverish one's culture and spiritual pursuits. Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted. Of central importance is nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Rather, it is a political creed, an economic doctrine, a religious outlook, a moral precept, and especially, a humanitarian world view.
It is an effort not to systematise wisdom but to transform society and is based on an undying faith in the goodness of human nature. There is no such thing as "Gandhism", and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final.
I may change them tomorrow. I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills. Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swarajpublished in Gujarati inbecame "the intellectual blueprint" for India's independence movement. The book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved". Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc.
Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books. Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s.
The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes. Ina revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions. Gandhi influenced important leaders and biography of mahatma movements. In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the nonviolent resistance philosophy of Gandhi. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas.
Innotable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him. Mahatma Gandhi's life achievement stands unique in political history.
He has invented a completely new and humane means for the liberation war of an oppressed biography, and practised it mahatma greatest energy and devotion.
The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civilised world will probably be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces. Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works.
We may all be happy and grateful that destiny gifted us with such an enlightened contemporary, a role model for the generations to come. Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood.
Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modelled after Gandhi's ashrams.
Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi. In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on nonviolence.
I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today, as President of the United States, had it not been for Gandhi and the biography of mahatma he shared with America and the world. Obama in September said that his biggest inspiration came from Gandhi. His reply was in response to the question 'Who was the one person, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with?
He continued that "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. King with his message of nonviolence.
Mahatma Gandhi Biography
He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics. Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in Gandhi was also the biography to Albert Einstein as " Person of the Century "  at the end of The Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens.
Nelson Mandelathe leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, was a prominent non-Indian recipient. InTime magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time. Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prizealthough he was nominated five times between andincluding the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee though he made the short list only twice, in and That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.
Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question". Indians widely describe Gandhi as the father of the nation. A 5 hours, 9 minutes long biographical documentary film,  Mahatma: The film The Making of the Mahatma documented Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader. Jahnu Barua's Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara I did not kill Gandhiplaces contemporary society as a backdrop with its vanishing memory of Gandhi's values as a metaphor for the senile forgetfulness of the protagonist of his film,  writes Vinay Lal.
Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. The film, Gandhi, My Father was inspired on the same theme.
Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are D. Tendulkar mahatma his Mahatma. The biography, Great Soul: India, with its rapid economic modernisation and urbanisation, has rejected Gandhi's economics  but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory. Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian biography of mahatma, if it ever was one. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military biography.
Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in IndiaGandhi Jayanti. Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of Indiaexcept for the one rupee note. There are three temples in India dedicated to Gandhi.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gandhi disambiguation. Lawyer Politician Activist Writer. Harilal Manilal Ramdas Devdas. Karamchand Gandhi father Putlibai Gandhi mother. The role of India in World War I. Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 31 August Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'.
He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's mahatma. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice. Reweaving the Web of Life: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Govt" Archived 6 September at the Wayback Machine. Government" Archived 7 January at the Wayback Machine. The Making of India and Pakistan. Retrieved 1 September By the late s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people.
They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets. Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of may have been the biography mahatma they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India.
His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought — he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shortly before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops. Patel and the government took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: The name Gandhi means "grocer", although Mohandas's biography mahatma and grandfather were politicians not grocers.
Gandhi, Autobiography chapter 1 Dover edition, page 1. Foundations of anti-Islamism in India. Mahatma; life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Life, Work and Transformation of M. The Ways and Power of Love: The Traditional Roots of Charisma. University of Chicago Press. John Zavos; et al. Explicit use of et al.
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Archived 11 April at the Wayback Machine. A Vagabond's Journey Tramping the Globe. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. An Analytical And Critical Approach. Joseph, Meditations on Gandhi: Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 12 February Gandhi, Attorney at Law: The Man before the Mahatma. Archived from the original on 1 January Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 5 October The South African Gandhi: Minorities and the State in Africa.
Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 20 January A History of Modern India, — Based on public domain volumes. Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan. Archived from the original on 3 June Archived 15 October at the Wayback Machine. Appeal for enlistment", Nadiad, 22 June Maffey", Nadiad, 30 April Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Indian National Congress website. All India Congress Committee. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 25 February Gandhi's Rise to Power: The First World War. Green; Nicholas Szechenyi A Global History of the Twentieth Century: Legacies and Lessons from Six National Perspectives.
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Sources of Indian Traditions: Modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Jawaharlal Nehru, A Biographyp. Leadership Struggle in Congress in the s". Archived from the mahatma PDF on 24 December Retrieved 12 April India's Struggle for Independence. The Mahatma and mother India: Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru: The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 25 March Propaganda and biography in Eastern India, — A History of India.
Archived from the original on 1 October Archived 21 March at the Wayback Machine. A concise history of modern India. Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India. Random House Digital, Inc. Empirical Foundations of Psychology. Almanac of World Crime. Gandhi in His Time and Ours: The Global Legacy of His Ideas. The Life and Afterlife of the Mahatma. Why I assassinated Mahatma Gandhi? Born into a privileged mahatma, Gandhi was fortunate to receive a comprehensive education, but proved a mediocre student. In Mayaged 13, Gandhi was married to Kasturba Makhanji, a girl also aged 13, through the arrangement of their respective parents, as is customary in India.
Following his biography into Samaldas College, at the University of Bombay, she bore him the first of four sons, in Determined to adhere to Hindu principles, which included vegetarianism as well as alcohol and sexual abstinence, he found London restrictive initially, but mahatma he had found kindred spirits he flourished, and pursued the philosophical study of religions, including Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism and others, having professed no particular interest in religion up until then.
On one occasion he was thrown from a first class train carriage, despite being in possession of a valid ticket. Witnessing the racial bias experienced by his countrymen served as a catalyst for his later activism, and he attempted to fight segregation at all levels.
He founded a political movement, known as the Natal Indian Congress, and developed his theoretical belief in non-violent civil protest into a tangible political stance, when he opposed the introduction of registration for all Indians, within South Africa, via non-cooperation with the relevant civic authorities. On his return to India inGandhi developed his practice of non-violent civic disobedience still further, raising awareness of oppressive practices in Bihar, inwhich saw the local populace oppressed by their largely British masters.
He also encouraged oppressed villagers to improve their own circumstances, leading peaceful strikes and protests. As his fame spread, so his political influence increased: He also instigated a boycott of British goods and institutions, and his encouragement of mass civil disobedience led to his arrest, on 10th Marchand trial on sedition charges, for which he served 2 years, of a 6-year prison sentence. When the British introduced a tax on salt inhe famously led a biography march to the sea to collect his own salt. Gandhi suffered six known mahatma attempts during the course of his life.
The first attempt came on 25th Junewhen he was in Pune delivering a speech, together with his wife, Kasturba. Travelling in a motorcade of two cars, they were in the second car, which was delayed by the appearance of a train at a railway level crossing, causing the two vehicles to separate. When the first vehicle arrived at the speech venue, a bomb was thrown at the car, which exploded and injured several people.
Godse was the person responsible for the eventual assassination of Gandhi in January14 years later. However, whilst the campaign was at its peak some Indian protesters killed some British civilians, and as a result Gandhi called off the independence movement saying that India was not ready. This broke the heart of many Indians committed to independence. It led to radicals like Bhagat Singh carrying on the campaign for independence, which was particularly strong in Bengal. After the war, Britain indicated that they would give India independence.
However, with the support of the Muslims led by Jinnah, the British planned to partition India into two: Ideologically Gandhi was opposed to partition. He worked vigorously to show that Muslims and Hindus could live together peacefully. At his prayer meetings, Muslim prayers were read out alongside Hindu and Christian prayers. However, Gandhi agreed to the partition and spent the day of Independence in prayer mourning the partition. Away from the mahatma of Indian independence Gandhi was harshly critical of the Hindu Caste system. He launched many campaigns to change the status of untouchables.
Although his campaigns biography met with much resistance, they did go a long way to changing century-old prejudices. At the age of 78, Gandhi undertook another fast to try and prevent the sectarian killing. After 5 days, the leaders agreed to stop killing. Our life is a long and arduous quest after Truth. Gandhi said his great aim in life was to have a vision of God.