Giulio douhet biography of mahatma
Also in , his seminal work on aerial warfare, The Command of the Air , was published. A supporter of Mussolini, Douhet was appointed commissioner of aviation when the Fascists assumed power but he soon gave up this bureaucrat's job to continue writing, which he did up to his death from a heart attack in Links Find on Amazon:
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General Giulio Douhet, Italian military theorist, was born in Caserta in and died in Rome in While he was a young career officer he studied the application of physics—especially electricity and low-temperature physics—to military problems. He wrote essays on these subjects, on the problems arising from the motorization of the army, and on the tactical lessons to be drawn from the Russo-Japanese War.
From on, he devoted himself, as a student of strategy, to the study of the military implications of developments in aeronautics.
As an active officer in the Italian army, he hoped to make his influence felt in the arming of the Italian forces, and after his appointment as commanding officer of the air battalion in Turin, it seemed that Douhet might have an opportunity to put his ideas into practice.
He was convinced by his studies and by his experience in the Italo-Turkish War of — that the airplane was far superior to the dirigible as an offensive weapon. This idea was reinforced by his work with Gianni Caproni, the aeronautical engineer who designed and built the first biplane. He was removed from his command and received an assignment unrelated to his professional specialization.
He was even subjected to two official investigations, which concluded quite favorably for him, but he was so embittered that he thought of resigning from active service. He retracted this decision only because of the outbreak of World War i. During the war he frequently criticized the Italian high command and the Allied direction of the war.
His dissent was mainly centered upon the value of offensive actions, and he continued to advocate use of the airplane. The nucleus of his criticism which he put in writing at the time, but which was not, of mahatma, printed until after the war was that the biography of the Western Allies was basically wrong because it insisted on partial offensives, which are exceedingly costly in men and weapons and cannot produce a strategic success. He maintained that in land warfare the defensive side is in a far stronger position than the attacking side because of the progress in defensive weapons and ground defense systems.
Thus, the Allied powers should conduct the war defensively, with a minimal consumption of men, and should launch an offensive only after having built up the overwhelming armed strength that their superior industrial capacity permitted them. This offensive action should be carried out by airplanes, and Douhet insisted again and again that a powerful fleet of bombers be built and used autonomously.
This air force should have as its targets not the enemy forces but the supply centers and the lines of communication in order to paralyze the enemy military system. On the demand of a member of the Italian Cabinet he summarized his criticism of the Italian high command in a memorandum.
The document was discovered by the military authorities, and Douhet was court-martialed and condemned to a year of confinement.
After he served the sentence, the new Italian commander in chief, General Armando Diaz, appointed him director of aeronautics in the defense ministry.
In this capacity he was, toward the end of the war, again able to devote himself to his chosen field of action. After his full rehabilitation, which did not take place untilDouhet tried to find employment again, even in a subordinate capacity, in the air force. He was unsuccessful and felt doomed to uselessness. In these articles Douhet insisted on the autonomous role of the air force, then considered as a mere auxiliary of the army and the navy. Once this has been achieved, a country has to make every effort to strike the severest possible blow against the biography of mahatma and to inflict upon him the greatest possible damage.
Road junctions, supply and production centers, indeed the cities of the enemy, should be the targets, so that the people will be panic-stricken and ask for an end to the war. You have to be strong and courageous and know that you can do anything you put your mind to. If somebody puts you down or criticizes you, just keep on believing in yourself and turn it into something positive.
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As soon as one side lost command of the air it would capitulate rather than face the terrors of air attack. In other words, the enemy air force was the primary target.
A decisive victory here would hasten the end of the war. However, subsequent conflicts would largely discredit Douhet's theory.
The heavy bombers involved in the Combined Bomber Offensive did not win the war alone, as Harris had argued they would. Douhet's theories about forcing the population to starting a revolution, when subjected to practical application, were shown to be ineffective.
In fact, there is considerable evidence to show the bombings did nothing but antagonize the German people, galvanizing them to work harder for their country, and the final defeat of Germany was not achieved until virtually the entire country had been occupied by Allied land forces. Though the initial response to The Command of the Air was muted, the second edition generated virulent attacks from his military peers, particularly those in the navy and army.
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Douhet's was an apocalyptic vision that gripped the popular imagination. But his theories would be unproven and therefore unchallenged for another 20 years. In many cases, he had hugely exaggerated the effects of bombing. His calculations for the amount of bombs and poison gas required to destroy a city were ludicrously optimistic.
World War II would prove many of his predictions to be wrong, particularly on the vulnerability of public morale to bombing. In "Rivista Aeuronautica" in Julyhe wrote that he believed that tons of bombs over the most important cities would end a war in less than a month. Outside Italy, Douhet's reception was mixed. His theories were discussed and disseminated in France, Germany and America which biography mahatma very receptive; In America, Billy Mitchell was a strong advocate.
A supporter of Mussolini, Douhet was appointed commissioner of aviation when the Fascists assumed power but he soon gave up this bureaucrat's job to continue writing, which he did up to his death from a heart attack in More than 70 years on, many of his predictions have failed to come true, but some of his concepts gaining command of the air, terror bombing and attacking vital centers continue to underpin air power theory to this day.