Biography 10 scientist in physics
George Washington Carver American. Feynman American co-developed quantum electrodynamics; created a new formalism for practical calculations by introducing a graphical method called Feynman diagrams. Kao Chinese-born British-American pioneer in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications.
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History of Islamic Philosophy. Infobase Publishing,biography 10 scientist in physics. How Islamic inventors changed the world Archived at the Wayback Machine. A Dictionary of Muslim Names. Boulakia"Ibn Khaldun: Matthias Schramm", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15p. Ernest Rutherford New Zealander,British. Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian. Satyendra Nath Bose Indian. William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin British. Louis de Broglie French. Robert Andrews Millikan American.
James Prescott Joule British. Hermann von Helmholtz German. He discovered that our biographies 10 scientist in physics invert images and our brains correct the upside down images. He was the first person to prove how logarithms work, allowing physical scientists to use these fundamental tools free of anxiety. Isaac Newton invented calculus, the mathematics of change, without which we could not understand the behavior of objects as tiny as electrons or as large as galaxies. His most famous work, Principiais one of the most important scientific books ever written.
In Principia Newton used mathematics to explain gravity and motion. When Newton walked past them one day, one student remarked to another:. Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation, proving that the moon orbits the earth for precisely the same reason that an apple falls from a tree.
Michael Faraday is probably the greatest experimental physicist ever. By varying a magnetic field he produced electric current in a wire, and so discovered electromagnetic induction, the means by which nearly all electricity is generated by power plants today.
He discovered electromagnetic rotation — the forerunner of the electric motor — and he discovered that diamagnetism is a property of all materials. His laws of electrolysis lie at the heart of electrochemistry, which he played a large part in founding.
He invented the Faraday Cage, which prevents lightning damaging anything within it and prevents external interference affecting sensitive electric and electronic experiments. He discovered that magnetism and light are related by showing that a magnetic field rotates the biography 10 scientist in physics of light polarization.
He was the first person to liquefy gases, and he discovered the enormously important chemical compound benzene. His equations showed that when electric charges accelerate they release waves of electromagnetism traveling at the speed of light, establishing that light itself is an electromagnetic phenomenon — in doing so he unified electricity, magnetism and optics.
His kinetic theory of gases accurately explained the origin of temperature and he introduced probability theory into the physics of the very small, which today is indispensible. Ernest Rutherford is the father of nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics. He discovered and named the atomic nucleus, the proton, the alpha particle, the beta particle, and he predicted the existence of the neutron. He discovered the concept of nuclear half-lives and achieved the first deliberate transformation of one element into another, fulfilling one of the ancient passions of the alchemists.
Albert Einstein rewrote the laws of nature. He completely changed the way we understand the behavior of things as basic as light, gravity, space and time. He established that everyone, whatever their own speed relative to light, measures the speed of light to be million meters per second in a vacuum. This led to the strange new reality that time passes more slowly for people traveling at very high speeds than for people moving more slowly. Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes Dutch liquified helium; discovered superconductivity.
Sir Joseph John Thomson British demonstrated existence of the electron. Max Planck German formulated the quantum theory; explained wavelength distribution of blackbody radiation.
Pierre Curie French studied radioactivity with wife, Marie Curie; discovered piezoelectricity. Sir William Henry Bragg British worked on scientist spectrometry. Philipp von Lenard German studied cathode rays and the photoelectric effect. Wilhelm Wien German discovered laws governing radiation of heat. Pieter Zeeman Dutch discovered splitting of spectral biographies in a strong magnetic field. Marie Curie Polish-born French discovered radioactivity of thorium; co-discovered radium and polonium. Charles Wilson British invented the cloud chamber.
Jean Baptiste Perrin French experimentally proved that cathode rays were streams of negatively charged particles; experimentally confirmed the correctness of Einstein's theory of Brownian motion, and through his measurements obtained a new determination of Avogadro's number.
Lord Ernest Rutherford New Zealander theorized existence of the atomic nucleus based on results of the alpha-scattering experiment performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden; developed theory of Rutherford scattering scattering of spinless, pointlike particles from a Coulomb physics. Guglielmo Marconi Italian invented the first practical system of wireless telegraphy.
Johannes Stark German discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong electric field. Charles Glover Barkla British discovered that every chemical element, when irradiated by x rays, can emit an x-ray spectrum of two line-groups, which he named the K-series and L-series, that are of fundamental importance to understanding atomic structure. Albert Einstein German-born American explained Brownian biography 10 scientist in physics and photoelectric effect; contributed to theory of atomic spectra; formulated theories of special and general relativity.
Otto Hahn German discovered the fission of heavy nuclei. Max von Laue German discovered diffraction of x rays by crystals.
Sir Owen Richardson British discovered the basic law of thermionic emission, now called the Richardson or Richardson-Dushman equation, which describes the emission of electrons from a heated conductor. Clinton Joseph Davisson American co-discovered electron diffraction. Max Born German-born British contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; pioneer in the theory of crystals. Percy Williams Bridgman American invented an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures; made many discoveries in high-pressure physics. James Franck German experimentally confirmed that atomic energy states are quantized.
Victor Franz Hess Austrian discovered cosmic radiation. Peter Debye Dutch-born German used methods of statistical mechanics to calculate equilibrium properties of solids; contributed to knowledge of molecular structure.Top 10 Greatest Scientists who changed the World
Niels Bohr Danish contributed to quantum theory and to theory of nuclear reactions and nuclear fission. Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn Swedish made important experimental contributions to the field of x-ray spectroscopy. Gustav Hertz German experimentally confirmed that atomic energy states are quantized. Sir Chandrasekhara Raman Indian studied light scattering and discovered the Raman effect. Otto Stern German-born American contributed to development of the molecular beam method; discovered the magnetic moment of the proton. Frits Zernike Dutch invented the phase-contrast microscope, a type of microscope widely used for examining specimens such as biological cells and tissues.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg British worked on crystal structure and x rays.
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Walther Bothe German devised a coincidence counter for studying cosmic rays; demonstrated validity of energy-momentum conservation at the atomic scale. Sir James Chadwick British discovered the neutron.
Sir Edward Appleton English discovered the layer of the Earth's atmosphere, called the Appleton layer, which is the part of the ionosphere having the highest concentration of free electrons and is the most useful for radio transmission.
Prince Louis-Victor de Broglie French predicted wave properties of the electron. Arthur Compton American discovered the increase in wavelength of x rays when scattered by an electron. Sir George Paget Thomson British co-discovered electron diffraction.
Harold Clayton Urey American discovered deuterium. Pjotr Leonidovich Kapitsa Soviet heralded a new era of low-temperature biography 10 scientist in physics by inventing a device for producing liquid helium without previous cooling with liquid hydrogen; demonstrated that Helium II is a quantum superfluid.
Mulliken American introduced the theoretical biography scientist of the molecular orbital, which led to a new understanding of the chemical bond and the electronic structure of molecules. Lord Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett British developed an automatic Wilson cloud chamber; discovered electron-positron pair production in cosmic rays. Sir John Cockcroft British co-invented the first particle accelerator. Isador Isaac Rabi Austrian-born American developed the resonance technique for measuring the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.
Dennis Gabor Hungarian invented and developed the holographic method whereby it is possible to record and display a three-dimensional display of an object. Wolfgang Pauli Austrian-born American discovered the physics principle; suggested the existence of the neutrino. Enrico Fermi Italian-born American performed experiments leading to first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction; developed a theory of beta decay that introduced the weak interaction; derived the statistical properties of gases that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence American invented the cyclotron. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac British helped found quantum electrodynamics; predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics with special relativity. Alfred Kastler French discovered and developed optical methods for studying the Hertzian resonances that are produced when atoms interact with radio waves or microwaves.
Eugene Wigner Hungarian-born American contributed to theoretical atomic and nuclear physics; introduced concept of the nuclear cross section.
Powell British developed the photographic emulsion method of studying nuclear processes; discovered the charged pion. Ernest Walton Irish co-invented the first particle accelerator. Carl David Anderson American discovered the positron and the muon. Felix Bloch Swiss-born American contributed to development of the NMR technique; measured the magnetic moment of the neutron; contributed to the theory of metals.
Mott British contributed to theoretical condensed-matter physics by applying quantum theory to complex phenomena in solids; calculated cross section for relativistic Coulomb scattering. Hans Bethe German-born American contributed to theoretical nuclear physics, especially concerning the mechanism for energy production in stars. Maria Goeppert-Mayer German-born American advanced shell model of nuclear structure. Ernst Ruska German designed the first electron microscope. Shin-Ichiro Tomonaga Japanese co-developed quantum electrodynamics. Jensen German advanced shell model of nuclear structure.
McMillan American made discoveries concerning the transuranium elements. Hideki Yukawa Japanese predicted existence of the pion. John Bardeen American co-discovered the transistor effect; developed theory of superconductivity. Lev Landau Soviet contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity.