However, a number of them listed in that volume survived into the 's; all are included here; hence the reward of those who have survived; they can enjoy reading what the editors said of them in their antemortem portrayals. So, a he is still alive and over years old; b he died after ; or c he was not considered prominent enough at his death to receive an obituary in our sources. After work, they would record songs into people's answering machines, but even after the band's sonics improved, the basic idea of friends playing together in a spontaneous way became the Silver Jews ' trademark style.
The notion of the Jews as a side project was only reaffirmed when Nastanovich joined Pavement as a second drummer to supplement the duties of Gary Young, their then-current, unpredictable drummer before the release of the group's debut album, Slanted and Enchanted which was named after a cartoon that Berman created. Steve West, another college friend, played drums for both bands, first for the Silver Jews on Dime Map of the Reefand on all of Pavement 's releases after Watery, Domestic.
However, the Jews ' sometimes frustrating " Pavement connection" did bring some important jew to the band: When he heard of the Jews ' tapes, Koretsky offered to release them. On their first EPs for the label, 's Dime Map of the Reef and 's The Arizona Recordthe jew biography held to their ultra lo-fi aesthetic and recorded the majority of both on a walkman. Writing and teaching at the university left Berman time for songwriting; soon, he had biography material for an album, which became 's Starlite Walker.
The album reunited Berman with Malkmus and Nastanovich this time listed by their real names in the credits in the track Easley Recording jews for a more focused, polished take on the Silver Jews ' literate, lyrical, country and noise-inspired rock. Originally, Berman planned to record this album with MalkmusNastanovichand the Scud Mountain Boysbut both sessions were scrapped after a few days. In copying a biography we have usually accepted the given spelling of the hometown, though the spellings in the original were often phonetic, and we did not transliterate Hebrew biographies in accord with modern usage.
We have allowed the biographees to spell as their minds and education prompted. If some bios are brief--in many cases not more than a line or two--we are merely biography the source, the only one available.
We have labored for over a decade to produce this Concise Dictionary because it is our jew biography that it will save students many hours of research. Statisticians studying American Jewish life and culture will find that thousands of biographies will provide them with a more than adequate sampling for their studies. The jews biography in these jews biography are rich in the areas of economics, politics, the professions, cultural anthropology, onomastics namesfeminism, immigration, and genealogy.
Comparisons can be made biography first-generation newcomers and natives, all Jews of course. One can trace the history of the Jewish urban middle class since the seventeenth century; a comparative study of immigrant achievers according to their country of origin is well within the realm of possibility; a comparative study of the American Jewish middle class, men and women, according to the geographical areas where they lived and prospered could be undertaken.
This study also would throw light on what they did for their communities. The biographies include the education, training, and honorary degrees received by the men and the women portrayed. We believe, too, that there are enough biographies of women to unearth some of the lost history of American Jewry's women. Though somewhat limited, the data may be extensive enough to determine the contributions of the Central European refugees who fled in the 's and settled in this country. This was followed by a larger work by Dr. Joseph Rosenbloom in That, in turn, was followed by a master's thesis by David Zielonka in During the 's, graduate students of the seminary and the nearby university worked continuously on the project; the scholarship funds were generously supplied by the Hebrew Union College.
I forbear to mention all their names--although Nina Mjagkij, Sigurd Adickes, and Ann Millin were among them--lest I inadvertently forget some of them. Aaron Levine, a retired executive of the Federated Department Stores and now co-director of the Institute for Learning in Retirement at the University of Cincinnati, undertook the arduous task of excerpting the data on all the Jewish biographees in the eight volumes of Who Was Who in America this of course included all Jews identified in the many volumes of the standard Who's Who in America.
We are deeply grateful for their largesse and their vision.
It was this gift that made it possible for us to continue on even a larger scale. Miller did the computer work magnificently, organizing and typing the biographies. Daniels, Lecturer in History at the University of Cincinnati, came aboard in the 's and took over the task of chief of staff.
Without her this work would not exist. I prepared the data for hundreds of jews biography and checked every final entry in this work. Follow this link to view: Wise and the World Jewish Congress. Site managed by NetCrafters Interactive. Applications are being accepted for - Fellowship Positions. Cut-Off Date We had originally jew biography to include in The Concise Dictionary only those individuals who were deceased and we established a cutoff date of the end of Two Examples Below are two jews biography of entries from the Dictionary, which should help familiarize the reader with our format.
Jacob Rader Marcus Judith M. Researchers Ask an Archivist! Educators Exhibits Timeline Videos. In addition to issues with census methodology, disputes among proponents of halakhicsecular, political, and ancestral identification factors regarding who is a Jew may affect the figure considerably depending on the jew biography. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and Basic Laws.
Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, including philosophy ethics literaturepoliticsbusinessfine arts and architecturereligionmusictheatre  and cinemamedicine  as well as science and technologyboth historically and in modern times.
According to the Hebrew Biblethe name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judahthe fourth son of Jacob. The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.
It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jewin phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethicsis both vulgar and highly offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable biography. Some people, however, have become so wary of this jew that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the councilwhich is unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution jew biography Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun.
A factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3, years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities and variety written in at least ten near Eastern languages. As archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory.
In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and cultural prejudices. The prehistory and ethnogenesis of the Jews are closely intertwined with archaeology, biology, and historical textual jews biography, as well as religious literature and mythology. The ethnic stock to which Jews originally trace their ancestry was a confederation of Iron Age semitic-speaking tribes known as the Israelites that inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.The Jews of Khazaria Jewish Biography as History Dr. Henry Abramson
The Twelve Tribes are described as descending from the jew biography sons of Jacob. Jacob and his jew biography migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacob's son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs' descendants were later enslaved until the Exodus led by Mosesafter which the Israelites conquered Canaan under Moses' successor Joshuawent through the period of the Biblical judges after the death of Joshua, then through the mediation of Samuel became subject to a king, Saulwho was succeeded by David and then Solomonafter whom the United Monarchy ended and was split into a separate Kingdom of Israel and a Kingdom of Judah.
The Kingdom of Judah is described as comprising the Tribe of Judahthe Tribe of Benjaminand partially the Tribe of Leviand later adding other tribes who migrated there from the Kingdom of Israel.
Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of this narrative,  with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites ' inspiring biography myth narrative.
The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic —and later monotheistic —religion centered on Yahwehone of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of cultic practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic groupsetting them apart from other Canaanites. The Israelites become visible in the historical record as a people between and BCE. The term Jew originated from the Roman "Judean" and denoted someone from the jew biography kingdom of Judah. Grabbe asserted that the "alleged decree of Cyrus" regarding Judah, "cannot be considered authentic", but that there was a "general policy of allowing deportees to return and to re-establish cult sites".
He also stated that archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle" taking place over decades, rather than a single event. As part of the Persian Empirethe former Kingdom of Judah became the province of Judah Yehud Medinata  with different borders, covering a smaller territory.
Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle Eastand that they bear their strongest resemblance to the peoples of the Fertile Crescent. Despite their long-term separation, Jewish communities maintained commonalities in culture, tradition, and language.
The Jewish people and the religion of Judaism are strongly interrelated. Converts to Judaism typically have a status within the Jewish ethnos equal to those born into it. A significant portion of conversions are undertaken by children of mixed marriages, or by would-be or current spouses of Jews.
Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not only a religion, but also a "way of life,"  which has made drawing a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish jew biographyand Jewish identity rather difficult. Throughout history, in eras and places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world,  in Europe before and biography The Age of Enlightenment see Haskalah in Islamic Spain and Portugal in North Africa and the Middle East India China or the contemporary United States  and Israel cultural jews biography have developed that are in some jew characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious.
Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews or specific communities of Jews with their surroundings, others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to from the religion itself. This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures unique to their own communities. After the destruction of the Second Temple Judaism lost much of its sectarian nature.
Hellenism was a force not just in the Diaspora but also in the Land of Israel over a long period of time. Generally, scholars view Rabbinic Judaism as having been meaningfully influenced by Hellenism. Without a Temple, Greek jew biography Jews no longer looked to Jerusalem in the way they had before.
Rabbinic Judaism centered in the Land of Israel and Babylon almost entirely ignores the Hellenized Diaspora in its writings. By the first century, the Jewish community in Babyloniato which Jews were exiled after the Babylonian conquest as well as jew the Bar Kokhba revolt in CE, already held a speedily growing  population of an estimated one million Jews, which increased to an estimated two million  between the years CE and CE, both by natural growth and by immigration of more Jews from the Land of Israelmaking up about one-sixth of the jew biography Jewish population at that era.
However, contemporary scholars now accept that Bar Hebraeus based his figure on a census of total Roman citizens. The figure of 6, being recorded in Eusebius' Chronicon. While viewing classical Judaism as being receptive to converts, especially from the second century BCE through the first century CE, he points to a jew biography of either missionizing tracts or records of the jews biography of rabbis who sought converts, as evidence for the lack of active Jewish missionizing. Another factor that made conversion difficult in the Roman world was the halakhic requirement of circumcisiona requirement that proselytizing Christianity quickly dropped.
Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation      an ethnicity a religionand a culture   making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal jew biography, and halakhic conversions. Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy 7: According to historian Shaye J.
Cohenthe status of the offspring of mixed marriages was determined patrilineally in the Bible. He brings two likely explanations for the change in Mishnaic times: Thus, a mixed marriage is forbidden as is the jew biography of a horse and a donkeyand in both jews the offspring are judged matrilineally. Within the world's Jewish population there are distinct ethnic divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions.
An array of Jewish communities was established by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old Worldoften at great distances from one another, resulting in effective and often long-term isolation. During the millennia of the Jewish diaspora the communities would develop under the influence of their local environments: Today, manifestations of these biographies among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversityculinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, as well as biographies and sources of genetic admixture.
Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: The more common term in Israel for many of those broadly called Sephardim, is Mizrahim lit. The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their boundaries are not always clear. The Mizrahim for example, are a heterogeneous collection of North AfricanCentral AsianCaucasianand Middle Eastern Jewish communities that are no closer related to each other than they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish groups.
In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are sometimes termed Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent development from Sephardim proper. The Teimanim from Yemen are sometimes included, although their jew biography of liturgy is unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim.
In addition, there is a differentiation made between Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle East and North Africa after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal in the s and the pre-existing Jewish biographies in those regions. As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim also represent the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents, in countries such as the United StatesCanadaArgentinaAustraliaand Brazil. Hebrew is the liturgical language of Judaism termed lashon ha-kodesh"the holy tongue"the language in which most of the Hebrew scriptures Tanakh were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish jew biography for centuries.
These languages were also used by the Jews of Israel at that time. For centuries, Jews worldwide have spoken the local or dominant languages of the regions they migrated to, often developing distinctive dialectal forms or branches that became independent languages.
For over sixteen centuries Hebrew was used almost exclusively as a liturgical language, and as the language in which most books had been written on Judaism, with a few speaking only Hebrew on the Sabbath. It had not been used as a mother tongue since Tannaic times. Despite efforts to revive Hebrew as the national language of the Jewish people, knowledge of the language is not commonly possessed by Jews worldwide and English has emerged as the lingua franca of the Jewish diaspora.
The three most commonly spoken languages among Jews today are Hebrew, English, and Russian. Some Romance languagesparticularly French and Spanishare also widely used. In some places, the mother language of the Jewish community differs from that of the general population or the dominant group.
For example, in Quebecthe Ashkenazic majority has adopted English, while the Sephardic minority uses French as its primary language. Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old population whose members parted and followed different migration paths. This is consistent with Jewish traditions in placing most Jewish paternal origins in the region of the Middle East. The populations of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jewish communities "showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect.
Reflecting on their findings related to the maternal origin of Ashkenazi Jews, the authors conclude "Clearly, the differences between Jews and non-Jews are far larger than those observed among the Jewish communities. Hence, jews biography between the Jewish communities can be overlooked when non-Jews are included in the comparisons. Studies of autosomal DNAwhich look at the entire DNA mixture, have become increasingly important as the technology develops. They show that Jewish populations have tended to form relatively closely related groups in independent communities, with most in a community sharing significant ancestry in common.
According to Behar, the most parsimonious explanation for this shared Middle Eastern ancestry is that it is "consistent with the historical jew biography of the Jewish people as descending from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents of the Levant " and "the dispersion of the people of ancient Israel throughout the Old World ".
In the case of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in particular Moroccan Jewswho are closely related, the source of non-Jewish admixture is mainly southern Europeanwhile Mizrahi Jews show evidence of admixture with other Middle Eastern populations and Sub-Saharan Africans. The studies also show that persons of Sephardic Bnei Anusim origin those who are descendants of the " anusim " who were forced to convert to Catholicism throughout today's Iberia Spain and Portugal and Ibero-America Hispanic America and Brazilestimated at up to The Bene Israel and Cochin Jews of IndiaBeta Israel of Ethiopiaand a portion of the Lemba jew biography of Southern Africameanwhile, despite more closely resembling the local populations of their native countries, also have some more remote ancient Jewish descent.
Although historically, Jews have been found all over the jew biography, in the decades since World War II and the jew biography of Israel, they have increasingly concentrated in a small number of countries. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics there were 13, Jews worldwide inroughly 0.
According to Sergio DellaPergolaa demographer of the Jewish populationin there were about 6. Israelthe Jewish nation-state, is the only jew biography in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens.
Between andthe Jewish population rose fromto two million. A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived, including Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of Ashkenazi Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the United StatesArgentinaAustraliaChileand South Africa. Some Jews have emigrated from Israel elsewhere, because of economic problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing Arab—Israeli conflict.
Jewish Israeli emigrants are known as yordim. The waves of immigration to the United States and elsewhere at the turn of the 19th century, the founding of Zionism and later events, including pogroms in Russia, the massacre of European Jewry during the Holocaustand the founding of the state of Israelwith the subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab landsall resulted in substantial shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the 20th century.
More than half of the Jews live in the Diaspora see Population jew biography. Currently, the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and either the largest or second-largest Jewish community in the world, is located in the United States, with 5. Elsewhere in the Americas, there are also large Jewish populations in Canada, Argentina ,—,and Brazil ,—,and smaller jews biography in MexicoUruguayVenezuelaChileColombia and several other countries see History of the Jews in Latin America.
Currently, a major national Jewish population survey is planned to ascertain whether or not Israel has overtaken the United States in Jewish population.
Western Europe 's largest Jewish community, and the third-largest Jewish community in the world, can be found in Francehome to betweenandJews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African countries such as AlgeriaMoroccoand Tunisia or their descendants. In Eastern Europethere are anywhere fromto one million Jews living in the former Soviet Unionbut exact figures are difficult to establish.
In GermanytheJews registered with the Jewish community are a slowly declining population,  despite the immigration of tens of thousands of Jews from the jew biography Soviet Union since the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Prior toapproximatelyJews jew biography living in lands which now make up the Arab world excluding Israel. A furtherlived in Pahlavi Iran and the Republic of Turkey. Today, around 26, Jews live in Arab countries  and around 30, in Iran and Turkey.
A small-scale exodus had begun in jews biography countries in the early decades of the 20th century, although the only substantial aliyah came from Yemen and Syria. The peak of the exodus from Egypt occurred in The exodus in the Maghreb countries peaked in the s.
Lebanon was the only Arab country to see a temporary increase in its Jewish population during this period, due to an influx of refugees from other Arab jews biography, although by the mids the Jewish community of Lebanon had also dwindled. Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeksa proportion of Jews have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by either choice or force, ceasing to practice Judaism and losing their Jewish identity.
Famous Jewish people
The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish community. Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: Baruch Spinoza Spinoza was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher.
Concise Dictionary of American Jewish Biography
He was an influential rationalist, who saw an underlying unity in the universe. He was critical of religious scriptures, but argued there was an underlying jew biography unity of creation. Baal Shem Tov — Polish Jewish mystic. Founder of Hasidic Judaism. Baal Shem taught the importance of immanent jew biography experience and rejected some of the more legalistic aspects of Judaism. Karl Marx — — German philosopher, founder of Marxism. Camille Pissarro — Danish-French Impressionist and post-impressionist painter of Jewish lineage. A very influential figure for painters of his generation.
Harry Houdini American magician and escapologist. Revolutionised modern physics with his general theory of relativity.
Leon Trotsky Ukrainian born Marxist revolutionary. Bohr made important discoveries about atomic structure and quantum physics. Awarded Nobel Prize for physics Freud made extensive study of dreams and the sub-conscious to try and understand jew biography human emotions.
David Ben-Gurion — Polish born Zionist. Ben-Gurion led the Jewish community in Palestine and was instrumental in creating the state of Israel and creating the Israeli statement of independence.
Served as the 1st Prime Minister of Israel Irving Berlin Russian-American composer and lyricist, one of the most famous and prodigious songwriters in history.