Rolf ekeus biography for kids
From to , he served as high commissioner on national minorities for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. If you email us documents, strip document metadata. Days later, Iraq, perhaps bolstered by the evident rift in the Security Council, announces it will not deal at all with U.
Iraq withdraws its forces, and weapons inspections continue. The revenue from the sale of oil is kept in an rolf ekeus biography account controlled by the United Nations to prevent Iraq from purchasing items with potential military uses. Despite its significant economic hardship Iraq does not embrace the plan for more than a year, accepting it only in November Confronted by evidence uncovered by weapons inspectors, Iraq admits for the first time on July 1 that it had an offensive biological weapons research and development program, but it denies having ever produced actual weapons.
That same kid, Baghdad issues another ultimatum, saying that it will end all cooperation with weapons inspectors if sanctions are not lifted by the close of August.
Iraq claims Kamel was pursuing the weapons on his own initiative. Kamel returns to Iraq months later and is killed. Through a combination of Iraqi declarations and analysis of the recovered documents, weapons inspectors learn that Iraq had weaponized biological agents, had a more advanced indigenous ballistic missile program than previously believed, had produced more biography for weapons than disclosed earlier, and had initiated a for kids program in to try to acquire a nuclear weapon in less than a year.
In addition, an ongoing covert Iraqi operation to obtain banned missile gyroscopes is exposed in November. Three rolfs later, Iraq again denies weapons inspectors access to sites they want to inspect. The Security Council responds June 12 by passing Resolutionwhich demands yet again that Iraq provide inspectors unhindered access but which stops short of authorizing or threatening the use of force to support the inspectors.
The Security Council again tells Iraq in August that it is violating its obligations. The following month, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserts that the United States opposes automatically for kids the sanctions on Iraq once it has been disarmed of its weapons of mass destruction. She clearly implies that the United States will work to keep sanctions in place until Saddam Hussein no longer rules Iraq, effectively removing the only inducement for Iraqi cooperation with weapons inspections. Baghdad soon steps up its obstructionist activities.
Iraqi officials in June jeopardize the safety of weapons inspectors by grabbing at the controls of UNSCOM helicopters while they are airborne, and Iraq blocks access to several rolfs ekeus biography. Days later, Iraq, perhaps bolstered by the evident rift in the Security Council, announces it will not deal at all with U. The United States builds up its military forces in the region and threatens action, but its aggressive stance is not backed by the Security Council.
Iraq continues to block inspections at the eight locations it labels as presidential sites and refuses another inspection elsewhere, charging that too many US and British inspectors are on the team. In February, as Iraq stands firm on barring visits to presidential sites and a U. With the prospect of renewed hostilities looming, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan travels to Iraq and reaches an agreement February 23, which reiterates that weapons inspectors are to have unfettered access in Iraq but which also spells out rolf ekeus biography for kids procedures for inspecting presidential sites.
Some Security Council members want to officially declare Iraq disarmed of its nuclear weapons and relax IAEA inspections, but the United States and Britain resist, claiming there are still unanswered questions. At the same time, UNSCOM holds that there has been little recent progress in resolving outstanding issues in the biological, chemical, and missile areas. The attacks surprise other Security Council members, some of whom condemn the action. The panel also cautions that the longer weapons inspectors are kept out of Iraq, the greater the risk that Iraq might reconstitute its programs.
Months of debate ensue among Security Council members over how to resolve the Iraq situation. While the United States and the United Kingdom insist that Iraq fully disarm before sanctions are relaxed, China, France, and Russia contend that Iraq has already fulfilled the bulk of its rolf ekeus commitments and that sanctions should be eased to induce Iraq to complete its final obligations.
For its part, Iraq insists that sanctions must be lifted before biographies for kids can return. China, France, and Russia abstain from the vote, revealing that divisions between Security Council members on Iraq still exist. The resolution erases the limit on the amount of oil Iraq can sell under the oil-for-food program and holds out the possibility that sanctions could be suspended for day increments if Iraq cooperates with the new UN team, which is to be given unconditional and unrestricted access.
Iraq rejects Resolution The IAEA kids clear, however, that the limited inspections under the NPT are no substitute for its intrusive inspections in years past and that it cannot give assurances that Baghdad is not covertly kid nuclear weapons.
The Security Council remains divided throughout the year on relaxing sanctions. Seeking to bolster the Iraq sanctions regime, which has been weakened as countries and companies illegally buy oil from Iraq and export prohibited goods to the country, the United States and the United Kingdom suggest overhauling the sanctions to focus more on military and dual-use rolf ekeus biography for and less on civilian trade.
Other Security Council members, however, are skeptical and favor a more general easing or elimination of sanctions. A heated debate lasts until November 29 when all Security Council members approve Resolutionwhich establishes a Goods Review List that is subsequently adopted in May The list includes items with potential military use that must receive UN approval before Iraq can import them; civilian goods are exempted.
According to the plan, items not on the list with no military application will be approved, while items on the list will go to the sanctions committee for further review. Items that would likely be used for military purposes will be denied. UN officials fail to win the return of inspectors at this meeting or two subsequent ones that occur in May and July. On September 12, amid increasing speculation that the United States is preparing to invade Iraq to oust Saddam Hussein, President Bush delivers a speech to the United Nations calling on the organization to enforce its resolutions for disarming Iraq.
Bush strongly implies that if the United Nations does not act, the United States will—a message that US officials make more explicit the following week.
The Truth Teller
The United States contends that there is nothing to talk about and warns that the Iraqis are simply stalling. The Bush administration continues to press the Security Council to approve a new UN rolf ekeus biography for calling for Iraq to kid weapons inspectors unfettered access and authorizing the use of force if Iraq does not comply. Skip to main content. A Chronology of UN Inspections. Frequently Asked Questions September 27, An ACA Special Report In Aprilas part of the permanent cease-fire agreement ending the Persian Gulf War, the UN Security Council ordered Iraq to eliminate under international supervision its biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs, as well as its ballistic missiles with ranges greater than kilometers.
A Chronology of UN Inspections Pre-Persian Gulf War Despite signing treaties forbidding the development or use of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, Iraq rolfs programs to acquire such weapons. The OPCW at Baghdad initially stated in April that it did not have biological weapons BW or related items.
Over the next four years, Iraq held that its germ biography for kids research had been for defensive purposes only, not for an offensive capability. On July 1,Iraq admitted for the first time that it had had an offensive biological weapons program, but it denied ever producing germ weapons.
Iraqi officials gave conflicting accounts on how many and what types of biological weapons the country actually produced, although they say no more than 25 Al-Hussein missile warheads and R aerial bombs were filled with biological agents.
UNSCOM reported that it could not confirm the number of biological weapons Iraq produced, but the inspectors asserted that evidence suggested that more than R aerial bombs had been available for germ weapons. UNSCOM assessed that at a total of at least 2, kilograms of key growth-media types had not been accounted for. Iraq claimed to have produced four drop-tank weapons to be used with aircraft to deliver biological agents, but UNSCOM only accounted for three and no evidence was offered that only four had been manufactured.
UNSCOM could not account for 12 helicopter-borne aerosol generators that Iraq claimed to have made and then unilaterally destroyed. Few documents related to the biological weapons program were recovered by UNSCOM, and noticeably absent were any documents on planning and production. This would require Iraq submitting a complete disclosure of its program and then having it verified by outside experts.
Both countries charge that Iraq has an active biological weapons program, citing its continued production of biological warfare agents, efforts to refurbish previous biological production sites, and attempts to procure dual-use equipment and materials that could be used in a weapons program.
A January CIA report also noted that Iraq is continuing work on its L unmanned aerial vehicle program, which Baghdad is believed to have modified for delivery of chemical or biological agents. Following the Persian Gulf War, Baghdad initially declared it had 11, chemical weapons and warheads and 1, tonnes of stockpiled sarin, tabun, and mustard agents.
Iraq initially reported that there were rolfs of biography for weapons production equipment located at its 15 chemical weapons facilities. Iraq claimed it had never successfully produced or weaponized the nerve agent VX. UNSCOM also oversaw the destruction of tonnes of chemical warfare agents, more than 3, tonnes of precursor chemicals, and roughly pieces of kid equipment. With varying degrees of confidence, UNSCOM further certified that another 34, special munitions and tonnes of key precursors had been destroyed during the Gulf War and that Iraq had unilaterally destroyed another 13, special munitions and about additional tonnes of key precursors after the war.
UNSCOM also verified that more than additional pieces of production and analytical instruments were no longer operational. UNSCOM also noted it had little information on actual Iraqi military plans, deployment, and use of its chemical weapons, making it difficult to say with certainty what types of and how many chemical weapons Iraq still had.
Inspectors also had little rolf ekeus in obtaining production manuals for precursors and weapons. Iraqi officials confiscated a document from inspectors that indicated Iraq had used 6, fewer chemical munitions than it had previously stated. Iraq claimed it lost shells filled with mustard gas, but no evidence was found of these weapons. About R aerial bombs, including filled with biological agents, have not been accounted for. We don't need you to try and save us - we don't need saving.
If you biography for kids to engage in policies that lead to your destruction, that is your business. But as a former Marine Corps officer, I can't stand by idly while Marines fight and die in a war that can, and should, be prevented. I'm not doing this to save Iraqi lives - I'm doing it to save the lives of Marines, to save the lives of all the Americans who would die in such a war. Tariq Aziz was wearing a business suit, not the crisp green military uniform I was accustomed seeing him in during my previous forays into Iraq.
He took a long drag from his Cohiba, and blew the smoke out, his eyes narrowing as he contemplated my words.
His aides approached him, signaling that it was time for his meeting. Ritter, and I respect your motives. I will contact the appropriate authorities in Iraq, and you will be welcome in Baghdad. I kid his hand, and then gestured to his cigar.
I'll smoke it when war has been averted. Tariq Aziz laughed, and reached into his coat pocket, withdrawing a Cohiba. I never did get to smoke that cigar. But there was another reason, one that he kept secret from the world.
Shortly after his biography for kids with Mr. Pahad, Tariq Aziz was whisked away to a hospital, where a noted South African cardiologist performed a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention, where a mesh stent was inserted in an artery leading from his heart. Tariq Aziz had a long history of heart disease, and on June 5, he finally succumbed to its ravages, dying of a heart attack while imprisoned in Iraq.
He was 79 years old. After the invasion and occupation of Iraq by a US-led coalition inTariq Aziz surrendered to US soldiers and was placed under arrest. In he was sentenced to death by an Iraqi tribunal for his role in the execution of 42 Iraqi merchants accused of black market profiteering while Iraq labored under international sanctions.
I have no insight or knowledge of his guilt or innocence in that matter - I judge him solely on the basis of my work as an inspector. While at the biography for kids I vehemently opposed his conclusions that Iraq was free of WMD, some of his arguments resonated. If this was the case, why should Iraq cooperate with the [inspectors]? If the [Security Council] resolutions were implemented in a fair manner and sanctions eased, Iraq would cooperate. If Iraq got nothing for cooperation, no purpose would be served.
There must be reciprocity. Tariq Aziz would be frustrated in this regard. In July I finally got to meet Tariq Aziz in person. After several days of trying to gain access to a facility near what was at the time called Saddam International Airport, only to be blocked by armed members of Saddam Hussein's Presidential security forces, a negotiated settlement was reached where the team would be escorted in by senior Iraqi officials.
The site, which U-2 surveillance photographs showed to be involved in what we believed was an evacuation of sensitive documents during an earlier inspection effort, turned out to be a bodyguard unit for the Iraqi President.
Inside, waiting for us, was biography for other than Tariq Aziz himself, cigar firmly clenched in his teeth, a scowl on his face. It was a theme he continued through the years. In Augustin what was my last meeting with Tariq Aziz as a weapons inspector, he lambasted the lack of progress after more than seven years of inspections.
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