Enid graham biography definition
In her first employment she helped in the starting up of a child guidance clinic in Salford near Manchester , where she began an analysis with Michael Balint in Adele Mittwoch studied chemistry, physics and mathematics and obtained her master's degree in organic chemistry. Yandell also took advantage of apprenticeships with noted sculptors of the day.
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Marx attended the Roedean School for girls from untiland her artistic studies there included life drawing, printing, and carpentry. Marx was a versatile artist whose work spanned industrial design and the visual arts. She valued craft and folk art, and derived inspiration for her work from her collections of vernacular artwork and everyday objects.
Although she is best-known for her enid graham biography definition and book design, she also designed wrapping paper, stamps, and Christmas cards. Inafter leaving school before finishing her degree, Marx went to work for the textile designers Phyllis Barron and Dorothy Larcher at their studio in Hampstead. In she was selected by the London Passenger Transport Board to design the moquette seat biographies definition for use on the seats of London buses and tube trains.
During the design and production process for these fabrics, Marx expressed displeasure with the manufacturing firms, who took enids graham with the designs to conform to manufacturing requirements. Marx believed that time and effort could have been saved if the manufacturers had consulted with her before making the necessary modifications.
It could be under memoir. Or is it more like anthropology? Wodehouse prize, there is no justice in the world. The oldest of them were schooled in the s. As for the youngest, YMG decided. As soon as duvets, with their downy warmth and tog-factors, came into fashion, I would be out. This was in aboutthe introduction of duvets coinciding with the Thatcher era. A lost world, and also a closed one.
But so it was: YMG suggests this is something to do with women:. Anyone who has ever compared a convent with a monastery will have noticed that women tend to make more rules than men. Few authors would have such a fruitful comparison at their command; but one comes to expect it from YMG.
As I turned the pages and bits of boarding-school life were unearthed piecemeal, like the skeleton of some fantastic and once-common beast, I began to imagine what an index would look like:. Bath cube, 25, 72; as love tribute, Books and periodicals: Bosoms, books and bath cubes. Their daughter Margaret was born in Increasing ill health forced Ilse Noach to abandon the practice at the age of Meakin and Sarah Anne Budgett. Before her birth her father was a tea planter in India, in he moved with his family to Tangier, where he established two years later the Times of Morocco.
Subsequently she worked for two years with a mission in the Glasgow slums. After graduation she held appointments as assistant medical officer at the Camberwell Infirmary and the Grove Hospital.
In she went to India to do mission work. She was appointed medical officer at the Zenana Hospital in Hyderabad, acting first physician to the Cama Hospital in Bombay and, from tomedical superintendent of the Victoria Hospital for Women and Children in Calcutta. They had enid graham biography definition children: Harold, Martin, Sylvia and George. During the following years Ethilda B. She published three papers on gynaecological topics in and In the family returned to England and settled at Reading. She became an associate member of the BPAS in and a full member in Ethilda Budgett Meakin Herford specialized in the enid graham biography of functional nervous disorders by psychoanalysis and became a director of the British Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders in Camden Town.
She practised definition in Reading and was appointed Hon. In addition, she translated three works of Sigmund Freud into English. Her father was a Professor of Economics of Labour knighted in Her mother, the younger sister of John Bowlby, creator of the attachment theory, was interested in psychoanalysis and analysed by Joan Riviere.
She chose Enid Balint as her training analyst and was supervised by Donald W.
In she married Keith Hopkinsa historian and sociologist, with whom she had three children: Edmund, Ben and Rachel. Juliet and Keith Hopkins divorced in As well as her training in child and adult psychoanalytic psychotherapy, Juliet Hopkins had also completed family therapy training. Juliet Hopkins was a founder member of the independent child psychotherapy training run by the British Association of Psychotherapists, of which she remains a senior member. She has retired from private practice as a psychotherapist for adults and children but is still involved in teaching at the Tavistock Clinic.
Juliet Hopkins has always affiliated herself with the Group of Independents. She has published widely on aspects of child psychotherapy and child development and has a special interest in infancy and attachment behaviours. A collection of her articles was translated into German and published under the title Bindung und das Unbewusste. Susan Sutherland Isaacs was one of the most important representatives of the psychoanalytic enid graham of education in England. Her mother, Miriam Sutherland, died when Susan was six years old.
At the age of fifteen, her father removed her from her Bolton secondary school, because she had become an agnostic. She worked as a private tutor and governess, before training as a teacher of young children at Manchester and subsequently studying philosophy in Manchester and psychology at Newnham College, Cambridge. In she married the botany professor William B. Brierley and moved with him to London, where she was appointed tutor in psychology at London University in At that time she enid graham biography supported a biological approach, as can be seen in her book An Introduction to Psychology.
In she became an associate member and in a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. She divorced Brierley - who later became the husband of her friend Marjorie - and married Nathan Isaacsa metallurgist and educationalist, in The fact that the children were encouraged to express their sexual curiosity, led in to the closure of the institution. From to she directed the Department of Child Development, founded by her at the London University. Between anddefinition the pseudonym of "Ursula Wise", Isaacs replied to parents' questions in Nursery World.
She stated that the intellectual development of the child was intimately connected with emotional development. Starting with the opinion that an education free of repression will prevent learning inhibitions and developmental disturbances, she soon turned to Melanie Klein's view of a particularly harsh super-ego active within the earliest years of life.
Too much tolerance can moderate its strength, but also set free the definitions of guilt and aggression linked with it.
As the most sharp-witted spokeswoman for Melanie Klein in the dispute with the Anna Freudians, Susan Isaacs opened the Controversial Discussions in with her paper The nature and function of phantasyone of the most important essays of the Kleinian enid graham biography definition. In this paper she defined phantasy - differentiating unconscious "phantasy" from daydreaming "fantasy" - as the psychical representative of the drives.
According to her, unconscious phantasies constitute the primary content of psychical life and the basis of all unconscious and conscious mental processes. Susan Isaacs' numerous clinical and theoretical contributions were collected and reprinted in the anthology Childhood and After. She died of cancer in She was the daughter of an electrical engineer, whose Jewish ancestors had arrived in England in the earlyth century from Alsace. In her first employment she helped in the starting up of a child guidance clinic in Salford near Manchesterwhere she began an analysis with Michael Balint in After the war she finished her psychoanalytic training in London and became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in In the mids she was appointed a training analyst of the BPAS.
She became a collaborator of Melanie Klein and went into further analysis with Paula Heimann from to Betty Joseph demonstrated and drew out the technical definitions of Kleinian concepts, particularly those of projective and introjective identification. She was interested in the way some patients tried to maintain their often painful psychic equilibrium, although they had a conscious wish for psychic change.
Based on Melanie Klein's concept of the "total transference situation", Betty Joseph developed her own enid graham biography definition technique. She paid biography attention to the interaction between patient and analyst in the immediate here and now of the analytic process and highlighted the analyst's counter-transference, i. Many of Betty Joseph's most important papers are collected in Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Changepublished in Hansi Hanna Engl was born in Vienna, the younger of two girls, to parents who were of eastern European, Jewish descent.
In economic conditions led her father to move the family hat-making firm to London.
Ina year after the "Anschluss" of Austria to Nazi Germany, the rest of the family followed him into emigration. In London Hansi Engl worked from to as a childcare worker in the Hampstead War Nurseries, a residential care home for children made homeless by the war which was founded by Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham.
At the same time she studied psychology at King's College, then at Birkbeck College, and graduated in psychology in During this time she received her training in child psychoanalysis at the Hampstead Child Therapy Course founded by Anna Freud in Her training analyst was Dorothy Burlingham. With him, she had two sons, born and Kennedy then held the position of the Centre's First Child Therapist until she retired in She was an editorial advisor for The Bulletin of the Hampstaed Cliniclater The Bulletin of the Anna Freud Centrefrom toand on the editorial board of the Psychoanalytic Study of the Child from to Hansi Kennedy was especially interested in memory, its distortion over time by fantasy and repression, and its reconstruction in child analysis.
Her experience as a child analyst led her to refine the child analytic technique and to understand the relative capacities of a child's insight at various stages of development.
From to she studied psychology at Bedford College, University of London, with sociology as a subsidiary definition, and subsequently qualified as a social and industrial psychologist.
She received her psychoanalytic training from to at the Institute of Psycho-Analysis in London. Her training analyst was the Kleinian John Rickman, who left the Kleinian group while she was in analysis with him.
During her training she did research in social and industrial psychology at the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. After Rickman's death in she went into further analysis with Marion Milner. In she became an associate member and in a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she joined the Middle Group of the independents. In she was appointed as a training analyst.
Pearl King held numerous offices within the BPAS and was the first non-medical president of the society between and Also she played a significant role internationally in the organisational life of psychoanalysis, amongst others as Honorary Secretary of the IPA from to and of the EPF from to Besides her interest in the psychoanalysis of the elderly, a main focus of Pearl King's work lay on the history of psychoanalysis.
From to she was Honorary Archivist of the BPAS and initiated a computerised definition program concerning the history of psychoanalysis in Britain. She published a book in biography with Riccardo Steiner on the famous controversy between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud during the s. Inalong with Hanna Segalshe was awarded the Sigourney Prize for outstanding contributions to psychoanalysis. Melanie Klein played a significant role in the history of definition, as the founder of her own school focussing on pre-oedipal development and the early object relations.
She was born as the youngest of four children into a Jewish family in Vienna. Her father, Moriz Reizes, was a general practitioner from Galicia. Contrary to her first wish for a medical training, she enrolled to enid graham biography history and art at the University of Vienna.
However, when she was 21 she married Arthur Klein, a chemical engineer. She moved enid graham biography him to Rosenheim, where their children Melitta and Hans came into the enid graham. Their youngest son, Ernstwas born in Budapest, where the family settled in Chronically depressive, Melanie Klein went c. Her first probands were her own children. After presenting her paper Der Familienroman in statu nascendi [ The definition of a child ] - which based on the psychoanalytic observation of her son Erich - she became a member of the Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society in After separating from her husband, Melanie Klein went to Berlin in Three years later she began a training analysis with Karl Abraham.
In she was accepted as a member of the Berliner Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung and established a psychoanalytic practice in Berlin. At that definition she developed her technique of play analysis, substituting free verbal association with the actions of children at play. Through Alix Strachey she received an invitation from Ernest Jones to come to London, where she settled in In she was accepted as a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society.
In contrast to Vienna and Berlin her work was greatly appreciated in England. Winnicott and Wilfred Ruprecht Bion. They disagreed especially on the origin of the super-ego, which superseded, according to Sigmund and Anna Freudthe Oedipus complex. The archaic and harsh Kleinian super-ego, however, occurred out of early experiences of loss and had its origin in the infant's sadistic impulses, not in the identification with the parents.
Melanie Klein described an inner world of early childhood largely independent of the outer world and populated by phantasmatic "good" and "bad" partial objects, originating from instinctual conflicts. Referring to Sigmund Freud's theory of the death instinct, Melanie Klein stated, that these internal objects, finally, were manifestations of an innate conflicting drive structure. For Klein, the motor of the psychic development was fear as a response to destructive impulses, which were derivatives of the death instinct.
Melanie Klein demonstrated the basic ideas of her theory in her main work The Psycho-Analysis of Childrenpublished in In her essays A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive statesMourning and its relation to manic-depressive states and Notes on some schizoid mechanismshe completed her theory with the important concepts of the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive position, which took into account the conflict of simultaneous feelings of love and hate.
The characteristics of these positions were mechanisms of splitting, projective identification and reparation.
After the end of the war, Melanie Klein withdrew from the BPAS and concentrated on her activity as a training and supervising analyst. In she initiated the foundation of the Melanie Klein Trust. In her last major contribution Envy and Gratitudeshe described envy as an innate destructive drive, which was particularly important for the child's development. Melanie Klein died in - unreconciled with her daughter Melitta - subsequent to a successful operation for colon cancer, of complications resulting from a broken hip.
There she underwent a training analysis with Therese Benedek and continued it with Hanns Sachs in Berlin. In she became a member of the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Vereinigung, where she joined the circle of Marxist analysts around Otto Fenichel and Wilhelm Reich. Inafter Hitler came to power, Barbara Lantos emigrated first to Paris, enid her son was born in Barbara Lantos was appointed as a training analyst and lecturer at the Hampstead Child Therapy Course, graham biography definition by Anna Freud after the end of the war.
As the scientific secretary of the BPAS, she later took a more independent position. Based on the theory of ego-psychology, Barbara Lantos wrote essays about the nature of work, which were still influencing later discussions. Herbert Marcuse judged her paper Work and the instincts as the most far-reaching attempt at that time to answer the question of the drive structure of work. Lantos saw work as a highly integrated ego activity serving self-preservation instincts, in contrast to play, which is gratifying in itself and determined by pregenital impulses. She studied psychology at the University of Manchester, graduating in M.
She became a member, and in a training analyst of the BPAS. Lewinsky ran a psychoanalytical practice in Manchester and worked for child guidance clinics in the North West. She left England in to open a practice in New York. Hilde Lewinsky published essays on topics like shyness, obsession, homosexuality and masochism. In her most famous paper On some aspects of masochism she centralized the narcissistic satisfactions gained through masochism, which had the significance of a proof of what one can stand.
Suffering from chronic post-scarlatinal arthritis, Hilde Lewinsky died at the early age of Margaret Isabel Little was born in Bedford as the enid graham biography of definition children. Her father was a maths teacher, her mother was musical and artistic, but also chaotic and controlling.
Margaret Little read medicine and completed her clinical training at St. Mary's Hospital in From to she worked as a enid graham biography definition practitioner in Edgware in West London. During this time she had been a clinical assistant at the Tavistock Clinic towhere she trained as a psychotherapist. Due to personal problems Margaret Little undertook her first analysis from to with a Jungian analyst she called "Dr. From to she went into analysis with Ella Sharpewho became her training analyst. X and Ella Sharpe failed to realize the psychotic character of Margaret Little's anxieties, so she began a further analysis with Donald W.
In her book Psychotic Anxieties and Containment she gave an account of this successful analysis, lasting from toand resuming in Margeret Little is particularly known for her contributions on counter-transference.
In her article Countertransference and the patient's response to it she went beyond Paula Heimann's view of counter-transference as a enid graham biography definition for the analyst and stated, that counter-transference is of the same importance as transference: Patients often noticed unconsciously the analyst's counter-transference and if the analyst took no account of his counter-transference then they also would not believe in transference. In Margaret Little withdrew from professional life. Besides her work as a psychoanalyst she was a painter and poet.
An anthology of her essays and poems was published in under the title Transference Neurosis and Transference Psychosis. She was the youngest of eleven children in a Jewish family.
Her father Maximilian Loewe was a participant in the Hungarian revolution of and had fled to England after its failure. Her mother Therese Schacherl was the daughter of an Austrian rabbi.
After qualifying as a teacher at the Maria Grey Training College, she taught for several years in girls' schools and in a boys' school. She was a member of the Labour Party and the left-wing intellectual Fabian Society. Barbara Low was introduced to psychoanalysis by David Eder, her enid graham biography definition Edith's husband, who was a co-founder of the London Psycho-Analytic Society in In she was the only female founding member of the British Psycho-Analytical Society.
Lawrence, a friend of hers, whom she had introduced into psychoanalysis, gave her the manuscript of Sea and Sardiniawhich enabled her to pay for her training analysis. Impressed by the psychoanalytic polyclinic in Berlin, Barbara Low urged the setting up in London of a similar organisation for the free treatment of patients without means, which opened in Like Susan Isaacs and Nina Searl she was especially interested in the application of psychoanalysis to education and published a number of papers on this subject in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis.
In Barbara Low's book Psycho-Analysis. A Brief Account of the Freudian Theory was published. In this introduction for a wider public she conceived the term "Nirvana-principle", which Sigmund Freud acknowledged and used in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. This meant for Low the desire to return into an ante-natal stage of omnipotence, where no non-fulfilled enids graham biography definition exist - in Freud's words: In addition to her activities at the Psychoanalytic Institute, which Barbara Low served as its librarian for several years, she was a co-director of Imago Publishing Company and a lecturer and therapist at the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency.
During her last years she retired from public life and lived with her older sister Florence, who also remained unmarried, in Hampstead Garden Suburb. A Brief Account of the Freudian Theory. London, New York A revived sensation-memory. IJP 1,Sanity in sex. IJP 2,Education and mental health.
National Health 18, The psychology of the free child.
IJP 7,An interesting invented "portemanteau" word. Its Influence Upon Freudian Theory. London A note on the influence of psychoanalysis upon english education during the last 18 years. IJP 10,The psychological compensation of the analyst.
Learning from linked lives: Narrativising the individual and group biographies of the guests at the 25th Jubilee dinner of the British Psychoanalytical Society at The Savoy, London, on 8th March University of Southampton Grosskurth, Phyllis: Her World and Her Work. The Freud-Klein Controversies Stuttgart ] Yorke, Clifford: In Dictionnaire enid graham biography de la psychanalyse Paris[International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. It was here that she met her future husband, Karl Mannheim He lectured in philosophy at the Humanistic University of Budapest and emigrated in to Germany after the suppression of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
Julia Mannheim was introduced to psychoanalysis during her work at a Child Guidance Clinic, directed by H. Homburger, a paediatrician, who was interested in the ideas of Sigmund Freud. At the beginning of the s she started psychoanalytic training in Frankfurt am Main, but had to interrupt it, when Karl Mannheim was dismissed in because of his Jewish origins. Julia and Karl Mannheim emigrated via Holland to England. In London Julia Mannheim continued her psychoanalytic enid graham biography definition and became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in In addition to her private praxis as a psychoanalyst and her teaching activity in Anna Freud's Child-Therapy Course, she devoted herself after her husband's death to the editing of his writings.
Her promising membership paper on the case of a female drug addict was destined to be her only analytical publication, when she died at the age of Bion, was a pioneer of the psychoanalytic study of organisations. She studied psychology and economics at St Andrews University, where she lectured in economics from to After the end of the war she began psychoanalytic training in London and was the only woman in a group of psychiatrists and psychologists - among them her analyst Wilfred R. In she became a member, and in a training analyst of the British Psychoanalytical Society.
In she qualified as a enid graham biography definition analyst. Beside her private practice as a psychoanalyst, she acted as consultant to a number of enids graham and carried out many research studies with the TIHR untilmost significantly in the context of healthcare.
She worked, inter alia, with the nursery nurses at the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital in Stanmore, in order to improve the situation of children being treated as inpatients for a long period of time. In she married the psychoanalyst Oliver Lyth and moved to Oxford. In her most famous paper, first published inThe functioning of social systems as a defense against anxietydrawing on her experiences working with nurses at the London King's College Hospital, Isabel Menzies was able to analyse the enid graham biography definition of certain social systems.
She maintained, that the nurses' unconscious defense against anxiety connected with their task lead to detachment and depersonalisation of their relations to the patients. This was reinforced institutionally by a rigid hierarchy of roles and tasks, uniforms etc.
According to Menzies, social structures such as these are dominated by defense mechanisms, which have been described by Melanie Klein as the paranoid-schizoid defenses. Merrell Middlemore studied medicine and qualified in at the London School of Medicine. Trained as an enid graham biography definition, she was in the s one of the few analysts whose knowledge was based on the empiric observation of infants during the first two years of life.
In her posthumously published book The Nursing Coupledealing with the feeding responses of infants in the first days of life, she showed how varied and complex even the earliest responses of the new-born were, and how intimately the experiences of being handled and suckled influenced the succeeding phases of feeling and later fantasy.
Middlemore stressed, that in connection with the different habits of sucking, rudimentary psychic processes arose, which were within a few months organised so as to become fantasy. Merrell Middlemore died suddenly of cardiac failure.
Nina Marion Blackett was born in London as the youngest of three children. Her father Arthur Blackett worked as a stock jobber on the London Stock Exchange, her mother Caroline Maynard was an enthusiastic painter. After first starting as a Montessori teacher, Marion Blackett studied psychology and physiology at University College London. She graduated as a psychologist in and subsequently worked under Cyril Burt at the National Institute of Industrial Psychology. In she went on a fellowship to Boston and attended the seminars of the industrial psychologist Elton Mayo, who was then working on his famous Hawthorne Experiments.
The same year she married Dennis Milnerinventor, amateur economist, play writer, and also well-known for his call for a minimum income for all citizens. Their son John was born in Introduced to psychoanalytic ideas by her brother Patrick Blackett, the physicist and later Nobel prize-winner, Marion Milner went into analysis in Boston with Irma Putnamat that time a Jungian.
After her return to England inshe worked as a psychologist for the Girls' Public Day Schools Trust from until war broke out in She did research on "difficult" pupils' problems The Human Problem in Schools and gave psychology lectures for the Workers Education Association.
In under the pseudonym of "Joanna Field" her autobiographical book A Life of One's Ownthe first and best known of her journal based books, was published. In Marion Milner began a training analysis with Sylvia Payne and trained as an analyst for enids graham biography definition and adults at the London Psychoanalytic Institute. One of her patients was Melanie Klein's year-old grandson Michael, whose case she described in her paper Aspects of symbolism in comprehension of the not-self. In she became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she joined the Independent Group. She undertook further analysis with Donald W.
Winnicott and at the same time she began analysing a schizophrenic biography definition woman, "Susan", a foster daughter of Winnicott's wife Alice. She continued her own analysis in with Clifford Scott.
Marion Milner was especially interested in the mechanisms of symbolisation. Inspired by Melanie Klein's definition of symbolism as the basis of all sublimation, she arrived at the formulation that creativity lay in the capacity for making a symbol - not only in the service of defense Ernest Jones or reparation Melanie Kleinbut of making something new.
Artistic activity, she concluded, repeats the illusion of inner-outer fusion and omnipotence experienced in the mother-child-relation, but in a conscious way. Milner, who made use of painting and doodling in her therapy and was an enthusiastic painter herself, argued in her famous book On Not Being Able to Paintthat inhibitions to create are based on the fear of regression to an undifferentiated state in which the boundaries between self and object become blurred. She highlighted the fusion of inner and outer experience as a major precondition for psychological health and was one of the few to combine psychoanalysis with mysticism.Graham Young Biography: Worst Serial Killer - Documentary Films
Marion Milner was a member of the Imago Society, founded in to explore the extension of psychoanalysis to art and other non-clinical matters. Juliet Mitchell was born in Christchurch, New Zealand, when her mother, a botanist, went there on a research project. In they returned to England and Juliet Mitchell went to the progressive co-educational King Alfred School in London until the age of seventeen. She was the only woman on the editorial board of The New Left Review at its inception in and played an active part in the British New Left.