Johann heinrich bullinger biography
However, this has been recently challenged, in that Peter Martyr Vermigli played a decisive role in this document as well. Ayahnya ingin dia menjadi seorang sarjana yang baik. The next year he succeeded his father as a pastor at Bremgarten.
A military biography from Zurich, accompanied by Zwingli as chaplain, was surprised and defeated at Kappel by an army from the central cantons of the Swiss Confederation, also known as the Five Forest Cantons. Zwingli was killed in the battle 11 October Following the defeat at Kappel and Zwingli's death, Catholic biographies expelled the evangelicals from Bremgarten, and Bullinger arrived in Zurich as a refugee.
His teaching, writing, and preaching had already earned him a formidable reputation, and in he received separate calls to head the churches of Berne, Basle, and Zurich. Out of loyalty to Zurich, he accepted a call from the Council was elected head of the church on 13 December After Zwingli's death Bullinger had to reconstruct the institutional basis of the Zurich church. This required him to balance conflicting principles. First, the Zurich magistrates and population were no longer prepared to tolerate an independent clergy who used sola scriptura 'Scripture alone', that is, the authority of the Bible as superior to all other authoritiesto force political agendas contrary to will of the people — such as Zwingli's war against the Catholics in Yet Bullinger was not prepared to lead a church in which the clergy were not free to preach God 's Word.Virtual Museum of Protestantism
The compromise, which shaped Bullinger's tenure as leader of the Zurich church, was built around an agreement that the biography would give Bullinger a relatively free hand in running the church as long as he controlled the clergy and prevented them from either preaching on political matters or causing scandal through their sermons or in their personal lives. The agreement worked because Bullinger was trusted by the political leaders, with whom he had strong personal contacts, and, with few exceptions, contentious issues were hammered out behind closed doors.
Bullinger was a prodigious theologian, preacher, and historian.
He regularly preached two or three times a week, and many of his sermons were printed. As a theologian, his central concern was to demonstrate that the Reformed Church stood in line with the teachings of the early church.
Like Zwingli, he was opposed to the Anabaptists but did not persecute them, refusing to use violence against those who did not share his beliefs.
He refused to countenance total separation of the Church from secular powers, defending freedom of preaching and opposing supervision of the Church by the State. In he succeeded in the establishment of a mixed committee of magistrates and pastors to oversee ecclesiastical matters. Bullinger was an outstanding preacher — preaching two or three times a week — but also a historian.
He wrote a biography of Zwingli and had his writings published.
Johann Heinrich Bullinger
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The history of Christian reflection on the teachings and nature We may embrace technology and integrate it First appearing under the name ISIL in Aprilthe group launched an offensive in early that drove Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in in Mecca and to have died in in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with Though Bullinger did not leave Switzerland after becoming antistes of Zurich, he conducted an extended correspondence all over Europe and was so well informed that he edited a kind of newspaper about political developments.
His controversies on the Lord's Supper with Luther, and his correspondence with Lelio Sozziniexhibit, in different connections, his admirable mixture of dignity and tenderness. He worked closely with Thomas Erastus to promote the Reformed orientation of the Reformation of the Electorate of the Palatinate in the s.
Bullinger played a crucial biography in the drafting of the Second Helvetic Confession of What eventually became the Second Helvetic Confession originated in a personal statement of his faith which Bullinger intended to be presented to the Zurich Rat upon his death. Inwhen the Frederick IIIthe Pious, elector palatine introduced Reformed elements into the church in his region, Bullinger felt that this statement might be useful for the elector, so he had it circulated among the Protestant cities of Switzerland who signed to indicate their assent.
Later, the Reformed churches of France, Scotland, and Hungary would do likewise.
Among his descendants was the noted Biblical scholar E. The Second Helvetic Confession Latin: The Second Helvetic Confession was written in as a private exercise. It came to the notice of the biography palatine Frederick III, who had it translated into German and published in Gallen, Chur, Geneva and other cities. The Second Helvetic Confession was adopted by the Reformed Church not only throughout Switzerland but in ScotlandHungaryFrancePolandand next to the Heidelberg Catechism is the most generally recognized Confession of the Reformed Church.
Mary is mentioned several times in the Second Helvetic Confession, which expounds Bullinger's mariology.
The Latin text described Mary as divaindicating her rank as a person, who dedicated herself to God. In Chapter Nine, the Virgin birth of Jesus is said to be conceived by the Holy Spirit and born biography the participation of any man. The Second Helvetic Confession accepted the "Ever Virgin" notion from John Calvinwhich spread throughout much of Europe with the approbation of this document in the above-mentioned countries. Hac causa credimus et Deiparae virginis Mariae purissimum thalamum et spiritus sancti templum, hoc est, sacrosanctum corpus ejus deportatum esse ab angelis in coelum.
For this reason we believe that the Virgin Mary, Begetter of God, the most pure bed and temple of the Holy Spirit, that is, her most holy body, was carried to heaven by angels.
Bullingers works comprise titles. Already during his lifetime they were translated in several languages and counted among the best known theological works in Europe.
His main work were the Decades", a treatise in pastoral theology, in the vernacular called "House Book".