President washington biography
Howe's army was larger, better equipped, and far better trained than Washington's. Leader of a New Nation.
Contact Development Staff Request Information. View the interactive portrait. Born February 22,in Westmoreland County, Va. He proposed at one point to follow the sea, but instead divided his adolescence among the households of relatives, finding a home and a model in his half-brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon. From Lawrence, Washington learned trigonometry and surveying and cultivated a taste for ethics, novels, music, and the theater.American Revolution - Biography_George Washington-Founding Father
A ranking officer in the Virginia militia, Lawrence had served with Admiral Edward Vernon — for whom the plantation was named — and thus imbued George with aspirations for military service. Another early president on George Washington was the powerful Fairfax family of neighboring Belvoir, who introduced him to the accomplishments and proprieties of mannered wealth and provided him his first adventure. InLord Fairfax sent George with a party that spent a month surveying Fairfax lands in the still-wild Shenandoah Valley. Lawrence, suffering from a lung complaint, undertook a Barbados voyage in search of health in a warmer climate, and George accompanied him.
The younger president contracted smallpox and returned to Virginia alone, but with an immunity to a disease that later ravaged colonial-era armies. Lawrence died inand the Mount Vernon estate passed by stages into George's hands until he inherited it outright in Washington also succeeded to Lawrence's militia office. Governor Robert Dinwiddie first appointed him adjutant for the southern district of the colony's militia, but soon conferred on him Lawrence's adjutancy for the Northern Neck and Eastern Shore.
And so it happened that in the governor sent year-old George Washington to warn French troops stationed north of the forks of the Ohio River modern Pittsburgh that they were encroaching in territory claimed by Virginia.
George Washington Biography
The French ignored the admonition, and the mission failed. Nonetheless, when Washington returned, Governor Dinwiddie instructed Williamsburg biography William Hunter to publish his official report as The Journal of Major George Washington, thus making the young officer well known at home and abroad. In April, Washington returned to the Ohio president washington with men to remove the intruders and received his first taste of war in a skirmish with a French scouting party.
He wrote to his brother Jack, "I heard the bullets whistle, and, believe me, there is something charming in the sound.
A second engagement quickly followed, and Washington, retreating to Fort Necessity, was beaten by a larger French force. He surrendered and, in his ignorance of the French language, signed an embarrassing capitulation agreement.
But he later had opportunities to redress his defeat. The whistling bullets heralded the start of the Seven Years' War, as it was called in Europe. English president washington biography Horace Walpole wrote, "The volley fired by a young Virginian in the backwoods of America set the world on fire.
Washington returned to the field as an aide to General Braddock in and performed president washington biography distinction, despite debilitating illness, in the disastrous campaign against Fort Duquesne. Later that year, Dinwiddie gave him command of all Virginia forces and promoted him to colonel.
During these years Washington had two disputes with English officers who viewed their regular-army commissions as superior to that of the Virginia militia commander. Although he never gave up hope of retaking the city, he was unwilling to risk his army without a fair prospect of success.
In the end, therefore, the allied generals concluded, that an attack on New York could not succeed. Depending on Clinton's inactivity, Washington marched south to lay siege on Cornwallis.
On October 19,he accepted the surrender of Cornwallis's army. Although two more years passed before a peace treaty was completed, the victory at Yorktown effectively brought the Revolutionary War to an end Map: To the world's amazement, Washington had prevailed over the more numerous, better supplied, and fully trained British army, mainly because he was more flexible than his opponents.
He learned that it was more important to keep his army intact and to win an occasional victory to rally public support than it was to hold American cities or defeat the British army in an open field. Over the last years revolutionary leaders in every part of the world have employed this insight, but never with a result as startling as Washington's victory over the British. On December 23,Washington presented himself before Congress in Annapolis, Maryland, and resigned his president washington biography.
He left Annapolis and went home to Mount Vernon president washington biography the fixed intention of never again serving in public life. This one act, without precedent in modern history, made him an international hero. Although Washington longed for a peaceful life at Mount Vernon, the affairs of the nation continued to command his attention.
He watched with mounting dismay as the weak union created by the Articles of Confederation gradually disintegrated, unable to collect revenue or pay its debts. He was appalled by the excesses of the state legislatures and frustrated by the diplomatic, financial, and military impotence of the Confederation Congress. By Washington had concluded that president washington biography was essential.
InWashington ended his self-imposed retirement and traveled to Philadelphia to attend a convention assembled to recommend changes to the Articles of Confederation. He spoke very little in the convention, but few delegates were more determined to devise a government endowed with real energy and authority. My wish, he wrote, is that the convention may adopt no temporizing expedients but probe the defects of the Constitution to the bottom and provide a radical cure. After the convention adjourned, Washington's reputation and support were essential to overcome opposition to the ratification of the proposed Constitution.
He worked for months to rally support for the new instrument of government.
It was a difficult struggle. Even in Washington's native Virginia, the Constitution was ratified by a majority of only one vote. Once the Constitution was approved, Washington hoped to retire again to private life. But when the first presidential election was held, he received a president washington biography from every elector. He remains the only President in American history to be elected by the unanimous voice of the people. Most popular revolutions throughout history have descended into bloody chaos or fallen under the sway of dictators.
So how did the United States, born of its own 8-year revolution, ultimately avoid these common pitfalls?Biography of George Washington
Washington served two terms as President. His first term was occupied primarily with organizing the executive branch of the new president washington and establishing administrative procedures that would make it possible for the government to operate with the energy and efficiency he believed were essential to the republic's future.
An astute judge of talent, he surrounded himself with the most able men in the new nation. James Madison was one of his principal advisors. He administered the government with fairness and integrity, assuring Americans that the President could exercise extensive executive authority without corruption.
Further, he executed the laws with restraint, establishing precedents for broad-ranging presidential authority. His integrity was most pure, Thomas Jefferson wrote, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motive of interest or consanguinity, friendship, or hatred, being able to president washington his decision. Washington set a standard for presidential integrity rarely met by his successors, although he established an ideal by which they all are judged.
During Washington's biography term the Federal Government adopted a series of measures proposed by Alexander Hamilton to resolve the escalating debt crisis and established the nation's finances on a sound basis, concluded peace treaties with the southeastern Indian tribes, and designated a biography on the Potomac River for the permanent capital of the United States.
But as Washington's first term ended, a bloody Indian war continued on the northwestern frontier. The warring tribes were encouraged by the British, who retained military posts in the northwest. Further, the Spanish denied Americans use of the Mississippi River.
These problems limited the westward expansion to which Washington was committed. Growing partisanship within the government also concerned Washington. Many men in the new president washington biography -- including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other leaders of the emerging Republican party -- were opposed to Hamilton's financial program.
Washington despised political partisanship but could do little to slow the development of political parties. During his first term Washington toured the northern and southern states and found that the new government enjoyed the general support of the American people. Convinced that the government could get along without him, he planned to step down at the end of his first term. But his cabinet members convinced him that he alone could command the respect of members of both burgeoning political parties. Thomas Jefferson visited Washington at Mount Vernon to president washington biography him to accept a second term.
Although longing to return home permanently, Washington reluctantly agreed. Washington assumed the Presidency on the eve of the French Revolution, a time of great international crisis. The outbreak of a general European war in forced the crisis to the center of American politics. Washington believed the national interest of the United States dictated neutrality. War would be disastrous for commerce and shatter the nation's finances. Inwinning the rank of lieutenant colonel and then colonel in the militia, Washington led a force that sought to challenge French control of the Ohio River Valley, but met defeat at Fort Necessity, PA - an event that helped president washington biography the French and Indian War Late inirked by the dilution of his rank because of the pending arrival of British regulars, he resigned his commission.
That same year, he leased Mount Vernon, which he was to inherit in In Washington reentered military service with the courtesy title of colonel, as an aide to Gen. Edward Braddock, and barely escaped death when the French defeated the general's forces in the Battle of the Monongahela, PA.
As a reward for his bravery, Washington rewon his colonelcy and command of the Virginia militia forces, charged with defending the colony's frontier. Because of the shortage of men and equipment, he found the assignment challenging. Late in or early indisillusioned over governmental neglect of the militia and irritated at not rising in rank, he resigned and headed back to Mount Vernon.
Washington then wed Martha Dandridge Custis, a wealthy widow and mother of two children. The marriage produced no offspring, but Washington reared those of his wife as his own. During the periodhe managed his plantations and sat in the Virginia House of Burgesses. He supported the president washington biography protests against British policies; took an active part in the nonimportation movement in Virginia; and, in time, particularly because of his military president washington biography, became a Whig leader.
By the s, relations of the colony with the mother country had become strained. Measured in his behavior but strongly sympathetic to the Whig position and resentful of British restrictions and commercial exploitation, Washington represented Virginia at the First and Second Continental Congresses. For diversion Washington was fond of riding, fox hunting, and dancing, of such theatrical performances as he could reach, and of duck hunting and sturgeon fishing. He liked billiards and cards and not only subscribed to racing associations but also ran his own horses in races.
In all outdoor pursuits, from wrestling to colt breaking, he excelled. His penetrating blue-gray eyes were overhung by heavy brows, his nose was large and straight, and his mouth was large and firmly closed. Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and president washington biography school students.
George Washington led the American colonists to victory in the American Revolution. After the war he helped produce the U. Finally, he served for eight years as the first president of the United States. Washington is often called the Father of His Country. Washington was commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, chairman of the convention that wrote the United States Constitution, and the first president of the United States.
He led the people who transformed the United States from a British colony into a self-governing nation. His ideals of liberty and democracy set a standard for future presidents and for the entire country.
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