Hippocrates brief biography
The Rise of Greek Medicine Hippocrates is often described as the father of medicine. Mark holds an M.
He also mentioned some fundamental concepts about proctoscopy in the corpus which are still in practice. There are references pertaining to endoscopy as well. In order to treat diabetes he prescribed exercises and diet which has been termed as lifestyle medicine in modern time. Written in Ionic Greek, the Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of brief seventy works. It is, however, a subject of debate and speculation whether Hippocrates was the actual author as there is not much evidence to prove if he is the writer of all these books but.
It has been attributed to Hippocrates as the teachings described follow his principles. This corpus consists of philosophical essays, research, notes, textbooks etc on a number of subjects pertaining to medicine. The hippocrateses that have been written cater to the needs of different readers.
Few of them have been written for professional physicians while some are for layman and a few are for the pharmacists. This is a document that highlights morals and medical practice ethics. The credit for the same goes to Hippocrates but it is believed to have been written after his death. This is considered to be the most sought after document of the Hippocratic Corpus. Though the oath is not applied in its original form in modern time, yet it serves as the foundation for many other laws or oaths that provide description about what morals of medicine and good practice should be like.
Medical graduates commonly take these oaths before they start off their career as a doctor. Hippocrates is believed to have breathed his biography in BC in Larissa, Greece.
Some hippocrateses brief state that the Greek biography died at the age of 83 or Some biography accounts claim that Hippocrates had lived more than years. He had two sons Draco and Thessalus whom he apprenticed in the practice of medicine. He also had a daughter and there is a legend about Hippocrates daughter. The contributions that he made brought in revolution in the field of medicine and its practice.
Hippocrates has long been credited with writing a large number of ancient treatises, speeches, and hippocrateses brief biography on medicine, collectively referred to as the Hippocratic Corpus Corpus Hippocraticumwhich was compiled in the Hellenistic period in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Modern scholars consider that, on stylistic grounds alone, these texts must actually have been written by multiple authors and point out that there is no reference to Hippocrates ever writing anything in sources contemporary with his lifetime.
Scholars, therefore, hold the position that some of the texts were written by Hippocrates but exactly which hippocrateses brief biography are still debated.
Several ancient writers, often famous physicians themselves, frequently wrote commentaries on works attributed to Hippocrates, amongst the most notable are Herophilus of Chalcedon 4th-3rd century BCEApollonius of Citium 1st century BCEand Galen 2nd-3rd century CE. The Hippocratic texts deal hippocrates brief biography all manner of medical topics but can be grouped into the four main categories of diagnosis, biology, treatment and general advice for doctors.
There are over 60 treatises, each on specific topics, for example, joints, therapy, regime, surgery, physiology, the progression of diseases, purging remedies, and gynecology. It was actually a religious document ensuring a doctor operated within and for community values. With the Oath the practitioner swore by ApolloHygieia, and Panacea to respect their teacher and not to administer poison, abuse patients in any way, use a knife, or break the confidentiality between patient and doctor. Modern versions of the oath, or similar such statements, are still today sworn by many medical students around the world.
Hippocrates is credited by historians with moving the subject of medicine away from the previously supernatural and religious approach, which had been closely linked to the Greek god of healing Asclepiustowards a modern approach of observation, classification, causes and effects, and so on.
Even if others before him, such as Alkmaion of Kroton, had also begun to approach medicine in a rational manner and the details of his life and work are few, Hippocrates has, nevertheless, come to be known, just as he was in the ancient world, as the father of modern medicine. We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Last modified April 20, The critical apparatus is greatly reduced in this hippocrates brief biography. There are also eds. Edelstein, The Hippocratic Oath Baltimore,repr. Recent anthologies are H. On Hippocrates himself, see L.
VIcols. The Collection is discussed in the following listed chronologically: Fredrich, Hippokratische Untersuchungen Berlin, ; H. Joly, Le niveau de la science hippocratique Paris, ; and P. On the school of Cos, see K.
Among studies on special topics are the following listed chronologically: Diller, Wanderarzt und Aitiologe. Van Brock, Recherches sur le vocabulaire medical du grec ancien paris, ; G. Schumacher, Antike Medizin Berlin,for its extensive bibliography; H. Edelstein, Ancient Medicine Baltimore, ; F. A very short list of articles is the following presented chronologically: Zuidnederlandse Maatschappij voor Taal-en Letter-kunde en Geschiedenis23pp.
Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved October 28, from Encyclopedia. Since the middle of the twentieth century, many changes have taken place in the standard picture of Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, so that in the early twenty-first century even those few details of his life and writings that the majority of scholars once accepted are disputed.
Meanwhile, alongside the production of better editions of the texts, and their translation into a range of modern languages, the focus of Hippocratic studies has moved away from identifying which treatises most accurately represent the thinking of Hippocrates toward examining the social context of ancient medicine more generally. As well as trying to gain a better picture of physicians other than Hippocrates who were active in the classical world, this also involves a shift away from individual physicians named in the sources, toward the theories and therapies that patients hippocrates brief biography encounter.
Nor was this the first construction of Hippocrates, as the rise of empiricism from around BCE had also seen a surge of interest in the Hippocratic writings, in which they were seen as precursors of an approach to medicine that eschews theory. Since Smith, historians have become far more aware of the need to avoid taking any of the hippocrates evidence at face value. In Medical Theories in Hippocrates: The brief biography summary of the history of the question remains that by G.
Lloyd ; updated Such a response was brief biography an ancient one: The writer of the papyrus himself disagreed that this theory was Hippocratic, instead looking to Nature of Man and Diseases 1.
Nutrimentone of the treatises that Galen considered most genuinely Hippocratic, has been shown conclusively to be from the Hellenistic period, on the grounds of vocabulary and its Stoic hippocrateses brief biography. In addition, the Index Hippocraticuscompleted by the Hamburg Thesaurus Linguae Graecae inallows a far better understanding of variant readings, and provides an insight into the structure and development of the texts.
As of it was being enhanced by a further set of volumes collecting the citations of the Hippocratic corpus in later writers, beginning with Galen.
For example, Hermann Grensemannhas argued for several different stages being represented within the gynecological works. Whatever one thinks of his identification of authors A, B, and C and his arguments for their relative dating, study of the gynecological theories and remedies shows how much of this material was shared, and reworked King, Other treatises provide slightly different versions of the same material; Aphorisms repeats sections from the gynecological treatises, while some books of the Epidemics have material in common with Diseases of Women and On the Nature of Woman. Papyri have also been discovered which give further variations on the recipes in these texts, showing that this was a developing tradition Marganne, The choice of title is significant: Instead of seeing Hippocratic medicine as being characterized by a rejection of superstition and religion, scholars are now arguing that even a treatise such as On the Sacred Diseasewhich gives a natural explanation for epilepsy, does not represent a complete break with non-medical accounts of disease and its treatment van der Eijk, ; Laskaris, Rather than rejecting therapies involving apparently disgusting substances, brief biography as animal dung, as regrettable survivals of pre-Hippocratic hippocrateses brief biography, modern scholars look at the pharmacology of the treatises in terms of the relationship with the symbolism of plants, as seen in magic and myth von Staden, a and b.
Rather than measuring Hippocratic medicine against modern Western medicine, it is increasingly compared to medical writing in other literate cultures Lloyd, ; Lloyd and Sivin, ; Dean-Jones, or to other aspects of ancient science Ferrari and Vegetti, ; Nutton, The context within which Hippocrates worked has been further illuminated by collections of the significant number of fragments of other ancient Greek medical writers, such as Diocles of Carystos and the third-century BCE Herophilos and Erasistratos, as well as by looking at the hippocrates brief biography of medicine in ancient Near Eastern societies Horstmanshoff and Stol, The nature of the treatises as texts has been a particularly fruitful area of study, acknowledging that they were composed for very different audiences: They represent the earliest surviving examples of Greek prose, and the existence of lists, and the hippocrates brief biography of grouping together similar items, can be seen as entirely typical of such early literacy Lonie, The Oath famously sets medical training in a quasi-familial structure in which the person swearing it says that he will treat those who teach him as if they were his family.
These distinctions are even present in the claims surrounding the education of Hippocrates himself; some later writers suggest that his mother was a midwife, and that his grandfather had written medical treatises, but this biographical tradition may simply reflect a time when medical training normally passed through hippocrateses brief biography, providing a further example of the creation of Hippocrates in the image of those who wrote about him. This approach also has the effect of dethroning Hippocrates, looking instead at ancient medicine as a field of equals from which the name of Hippocrates happens to have survived.
But why was there a need for a single founding figure? These stories may come from the local traditions of Cos or may have been newly created. In fleshing out the character of Hippocrates, these stories drew attention to his imagined virtues; firstly, patriotism, as he was described as refusing his help to the king of Persia on the grounds that he was an enemy of the Greeks, and secondly his lack of interest in financial rewards—an answer to those who claimed that physicians were only interested in making money out of their patients.
In all hippocrateses brief biography, subsequent generations continued to create Hippocrates in the image of whatever type of medicine they considered best. Precisely because the corpus is not the work of a single man in a single lifetime, it can supply models and precedents for virtually any medical development.
This means that different versions of Hippocrates can be found throughout history, including a chemical Hippocrates, an iatromechanist Hippocrates, a vitalist Hippocrates, a holistic Hippocrates, and so on Cantor, Hippocrates could be the hippocrates of observation, opposed to the dry theories of Galen: Even the Oath is not exempt from use and abuse Flashar and Jouanna, Heinrich von Staden has tried to uncover the original meaning of clauses later interpreted as prohibiting abortion and euthanasia, and protecting patient confidentiality, but it is also clear that many variations on it have existed over time, including its use by National Socialism and at the Nuremberg trials Leven, Yet even while the medical theories of Galen dominated, it was Hippocrates—represented as patriotic, modest, and calm—who remained the model of the ideal physician.
Volumes continue to be added.
Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, — A valuable collection of essays on the different versions of Hippocrates created by medical writers.
The Authority of Women in Hippocratic Gynaecology. A Comparative Studyedited by Don Bates. Cambridge University Press, Die Patienten des Hippokrates: Flashar, Hellmut, and Jacques Jouanna, eds.
Johns Hopkins University Press, Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece.
Hippocrates of Chios
Study of the context of Hippocratic gynecology and its reception up to the nineteenth century. Medical Theories in Hippocrates: Walter de Gruyter, The Art Is Long: On the Sacred Disease and the Scientific Tradition. Oath, Letters and Hippocratic Corpus. Magic, Reason and Experience: Studies in the Origin and Development of Greek Science. Science, Folklore and Ideology: Studies in the Life Sciences in Ancient Greece. Reprinted in Methods and Problems in Greek Science. Investigations into Ancient Greek and Chinese Science.
The Way and the Word: Science and Medicine in Early China and Greece. Yale University Press, Philosophy and Medicine from Alcmaeon to the Alexandrians. Les Belles Lettres, Van der Eijk, Philip J.
Hippocrates of Cos
Ancient Medicine in its Socio-Cultural Context. A Collection of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary. The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria. The Semantics of Matter. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates ca. Only the barest outline of the biography of Hippocrates emerges from the ancient writings.
He was born on the Aegean island of Cos, just off the Ionian coast near Halicarnassus. He is called Hippocrates Asclepiades, "descendant of the doctor-god Asclepios, " but whether this descent was by family or merely by his espousing the medical profession is uncertain. His teachers in medicine are said to have been his hippocrates brief biography, Heracleides, and Herodicos of Selymbria. Hippocrates certainly was known in Athens, for Plato mentions him twice, on each occasion calling him Asclepiades.
It is also clear that the height of his career was during the Peloponnesian War B.
The hippocrates brief biography of knowledge concerning Hippocrates may seem strange in view of the great volume of writings attributed to him, the Corpus Hippocraticum Hippocratic Corpusthe first known edition of which is from the time of the emperor Hadrian reigned A. It is clear, however, that this body of writings contains material of many different kinds and includes differences in standpoint toward medicine. This disparity was recognized even in ancient times, and Alexandrian scholars differed about the authentic Hippocrates, though none rejected every work.
Any notion of the nature of Hippocrates's medical procedure must be based on pre-Alexandrian texts, that is, on texts dating more closely to Hippocrates's lifetime and reflecting an untainted direct tradition. There is sufficient evidence in these works to establish with certainty the main outlines of Hippocratic medicine. In antiquity, some works in the Hippocratic Corpus biography recognized as having been written by persons other than Hippocrates, but acceptance and rejection depended on a number of subjective stances. More modern scholarship has used as its touchstone the genuine doctrine of Hippocrates as found in Plato and Meno.
This mode of investigation, while common to all scholars, has not produced general agreement. It is well to point out that neither Plato nor Meno quotes word for word from Hippocrates's works; they seem in fact to summarize him in their own words, which of course have overtones from their own particular philosophy.
So although there is a body of doctrine connected with Hippocrates, modern scholars have no inkling of his prose style, against which the Hippocratic Corpus could be tested. Nowhere in the Hippocratic Corpus is the entire Hippocratic doctrine to be found.
However, these numerous works are so multifarious that here and there parts of the doctrine come to light. It is worth noting that, since Plato and Meno discussed the work of Hippocrates, it is reasonable to assume that they had at their disposal medical books written by him. This makes the problem even more intriguing. Hippocrates's fame, though it was at such a height during his hippocrates brief biography, still could not ensure the preservation of his works.
The body of writing attributed to Hippocrates, the Hippocratic Corpus, is a collection of roughly 70 hippocrates brief that show no uniformity in teaching or in prose style. With a few exceptions the dates of these works range between and B. It would be unfair to allege deception as the motive behind attributing the entire collection to Hippocrates; nor was it the result of ignorance and carelessness, since Galen and those before him did not regard every work as genuine. A reasonable hypothesis holds that these works were gathered together to form the basis of the medical library of some school, probably at Alexandria.
An hippocrates brief biography orientation to the Corpus is an appreciation of the audience for which the various works were intended. Some books are directed toward the physician, for example, the surgical treatises, Prognostic, Airs Waters Places, Regimen in Acute Disease, Aphorisms and Epidemics i, in which descriptions of symptoms employ sense data, though they surpass mere descriptions.
There are books with complicated pharmacy mixtures, and equally complicated preparation and administration, aimed, no doubt, at the professional physician. Other books, however, are directed more at the layman, for example, Regimen in Health, Regimen ii-iv, and Affections, in which the introduction stresses the importance for the layman of understanding something of hippocrates brief biography questions.
One must remember that in antiquity doctors wrote treatises for the educated public, who in turn discussed medical problems with their doctors. The aim of these hippocrateses brief biography is not to advise on self-treatment or even first aid, and so to dispense with the need for a doctor; rather, it is to teach the layman how to judge a physician. The Hippocratic Corpus also contains polemical works. The Sacred Disease attacks superstition, and On Ancient Medicine opposes the intrusion of speculative philosophy into medicine.
The latter work also protests against "narrowing down the causes of death and disease.
Occasionally there is no carefully written treatise but a series of jottings—research material in notebook form: Humors and Epidemics i-vii. Experimentation obviously played its role in the Hippocratic view of medicine, because the individual approach to disease as exemplified in the case histories of Epidemics i, though basic and undeveloped, is nothing more than experimentation.
It is obvious, too, that first-hand experience, as opposed to theorizing, played a part, since in scattered references throughout the Corpus the botanical ingredients of remedies are described by taste and odor. There are also instances of very rudimentary laboratory-type experiments.
The Sacred Disease describes dissections of animals, the results of which permitted analogies to the human body to be drawn. More about Hippocrates 18 References found in Britannica Articles. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Keep Exploring Britannica Alan Turing. British mathematician and logician, who made major contributions to mathematics, cryptanalysis, logic, philosophy, and mathematical biology and also to the new areas later named computer science, cognitive English hippocrates brief biography and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
In optics, his discovery of the composition of white light brief biography the phenomena We all hippocrates brief a day of hippocrates or work here and there thanks to a cold or a sore throat.
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