Derek h aldcroft biography of michael

derek h aldcroft biography of michael
The result was malleable iron in large quantities. Economics A supply and demand diagram, illustrating the effects of an increase in demand. He challenged the negative perceptions of the s as a period of stagnation and failure.

Arabs introduced summer irrigation to Europe. By AD in Europe, developments in iron smelting allowed for increased production, leading to developments in the production of farm tools such as ploughs, hand tools and horse shoes.

The plough was significantly improved, developing into the mouldboard ploughcapable of turning over the heavy, wet soils of northern Europe.

derek h aldcroft biography of michael

This led to the clearing of forests in that area and a significant increase in agricultural production, which in turn led to an increase in population.

This resulted in increased productivity and nutrition, as the change in rotations led to different crops being planted, including legumes such as peas, lentils and beans. Inventions such as improved horse harnesses and the derek h aldcroft biography of michael also changed methods of cultivation. Watermills were initially developed by the Romans, but were improved throughout the Middle Ages, along with windmillsand were provided the power needed to grind grains into flour, cut wood and process flax and wool, and irrigate fields. Field crops included wheat, rye, barley and oats; they were used for bread and animal fodder.

Peas, beans, and vetches became common from the 13th century onward as food and as a fodder crop for animals; it also had nitrogen-fixation fertilizing properties. Crop yields peaked in the 13th century, and stayed more or less steady until the 18th century. There were episodes of widespread famines, and also of deadly epidemics. Soil exhaustion, overpopulation, wars, diseases and climate change cause hundreds of famines in medieval Europe.

derek h aldcroft biography of michael

Famines such as Great Famine of — slowly weakened the populace. Few people died of starvation because the weakest had already succumbed to a routine disease they otherwise would have survived. A plague like the Black Death killed its victims in one locality in a matter of days or even hours, reducing the population of some areas by half as many survivors fled.

Depopulation caused labor to become scarcer; the survivors were better paid and peasants could drop some of the burdens of feudalism. There was also social unrest; France and England experienced serious peasant risings: These events have been called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. A major technological advance came in long-distance navigation, from the 8th Century to the 12th Century.

Economic history of Europe

Viking raids and the Crusader invasions of the Middle East led to the diffusion of and refinement of technology instrumental to overseas travel. People made improvements in ships, particularly the longship.

derek h aldcroft biography of michael

The astrolabefor navigation, greatly aided long-distance travel over the seas. The improvements in travel in turn increased trade and the diffusion of consumer items. From the 11th Century to the 13th Century, farmers and small-scale producers of crafts increasingly met in towns to trade their goods. They met in either seasonal trade fairs or they traded in an ongoing basis. Craft associations called guilds fostered the development of skills and the local growth of trade in particular goods. Over the course of the centuries of this period towns grew in size and number, first in a core in England, Flanders, France, Germany and northern Italy.

The economic system of this era was merchant capitalism.

derek h aldcroft biography of michael

The core of this system was in merchant houses, backed by financiers acting as intermediaries between simple commodity producers. This system continued until it was supplanted by industrial capitalism in the 18th Century. Economic activity over a broad geographic range began to intensify in both northern and southern Europe in the 13th Century.

Trade flourished in Italy albeit not united, but rather ruled by different princes in different city-statesparticularly by the 13th Century. Leading the trade in Mediterranean Europe were traders from the port cities of Genoa and Venice.

The wealth generated in Italy fueled the Italian Renaissance. This facilitated the growth of trade among cities in close proximity to these two seas.

derek h aldcroft biography of michael

The League was a business alliance of trading cities and their guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe and flourished from the toand continued with lesser importance after that. The Hanseatic cities each had its own legal system and a degree of political autonomy. The Hanseatic League was founded for the purpose of joining forces for promoting mercantile interests, defensive strength and political influence.

By the 14th century, the Hanseatic League held a near-monopoly on trade in the Baltic, especially with Novgorod and Scandinavia. The collapse of the Roman Empire unlinked the French economy from Europe. Town life and trade declined and society became based on the self-sufficient manor. Some international trade existed for luxury goods such as silk, papyrus, and silver; it was handled by foreign merchants such as the Radanites.

Economic disasters of the twentieth century – Edited by Michael J. Oliver and Derek H. Aldcroft

Agricultural output began to increase in the Carolingian age as a result of the arrival of new crops, improvements in agricultural production, and good weather conditions. However, this did not lead to the revival of urban life; in fact, urban activity further declined in the Carolingian era as a result of civil war, Arab raids, and Viking invasions. See also Pirenne thesis. The High Middle Ages saw a continuation of the agricultural boom of the Carolingian age.

Derek Howard Aldcroft

In addition, urban life grew during this period; Paris expanded dramatically. The 13 decades from to spawned a series of economic catastrophes, with bad harvests, famines, plagues and wars that overwhelmed four generations of Frenchmen.

The population had expanded, making the food supply more precarious.

derek h aldcroft biography of michael

It was the need to maintain high interest rates to maintain a credible premium with US rates and fund the huge stock of national debt. The contraction would have happened therefore, irrespective of the adherence to the Gold Standard.

It was essentially brought about by the huge financial michael sustained during World War I. Public debt and high interest rates had crowding out effects and discouraged derek. If followed through it would invite a radical reassessment of our understanding of the interwar years. However, it begs more questions than it answers and it would seem to require a large biography of empirical work, both on the narrower issues on UK debt and reserve management and on the broader issues of comparative debt management under different monetary regimes. They have since struggled to make a reappearance, as movies have become more and more enmeshed in the Hollywood discourse.

For moviegoers and academics the latter part of the twentieth century has been about the rising middle class. Please read our Copyright Information page for important copyright information. Send email to admin eh. How do we define an economic disaster? Most centuries would claim that they have had their share of disasters, but the twentieth century certainly seems to have been more prone to them than the previous one. A number of leading economists and economic historians assemble here to examine nine key disasters with international or global implications.

The book will appeal to a wide variety of social scientists, including those working in economic history, international relations, international political economy and geopolitics. Published in association with the ILO.

Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century

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derek h aldcroft biography of michael

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