Fukuzawa yukichi autobiography pdf writer
In some ways, it can be compared with Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. A chance encounter with an old patron, Yoshioka, leads to a relationship in which both lovers hope to profit: No trivia or quizzes yet.
Within a decade the new leaders had converted the daimyo domains into the prefectures of a centralized bureaucratic State, begun a system of conscription, and abolished the samurai class. On completing the social revolution, they went on to establish new schools, a modern army and navy, textile miils, banks and railways, a postal and telegraph system, and new codes of law based on Western models.
In they promulgated a constitution, and, a year later, opened a national assembly.
Autobiography of Yukichi Fukuzawa
Responding vigorously to their new opportunities and freedoms, the Japanese people built a prosperous economy and a vital new hybrid culture. The same Western observer wrote bemusedly in Betwixt night and moming. I feel myself lucky to be an eye- witness of so interesting an experiment. His early output was prodigious, ranging from history and economics to military technology and double-entry bookkeeping.
In order to express effectively the unfamiliar Western ideas, he invented a new prose style that was vigorous, colorful, and close to the vernacular. He was also not above poking fun at his fellow writers who, following the Tokugawa tradition, continued to write in Chinese. His works sold hundreds of thousands of copies — unprece- dented numbers for that age — and reached every segment of society.
Infor example, when Goto Shojiro, a powerful samurai leader of the Tosa domain, met with Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last shogun, to discuss the politi- cal situation in Japan and the threat posed by the Western powers, he was surprised to discover that the shogun knew more about the West than he did. It turned out that both men had read the Seiyd Jijobut the writer had read it more carefully. The Japanese title of the autobiography is Fukuo Jiden — a self-chronicle jiden by the old man o Fuku [zawa].
The title was appropriate since he dictated and amended the work injust four years before his death. His story begins in the rigidly stratified samurai society of Nakatsu, a minor domain in northeastem Kyushu.
Bom into a low-ranking samurai household, Fu- kuzawa grew up poor and fatherless. While he was an exceptionally able student at a Confucian school in the castletown, his life was not much different from what it might have been had he been born decades earlier. His odyssey had begun. A year at Nagasaki was followed by several years at the famous Ogata school of Dutch medicine in Osaka.
Finding an acceptance among his fellow students that he had never known in Nakatsu, and warmed by the fatherly affection of his teacher, these were wonderful years for Fukuzawa. Even decades later, Fukuzawa s pleasure in recounting the adventures of his student days in Osaka is palpable. Flout- ing the normal conventions of Japanese society, the Ogata students went naked in the heat of the summer, engaged in mock fights in the writers, drank rice wine, and pawned their swords to cover their bilis.
Fukuzawa tells of how they slaughtered a pig for a tender-hearted proprietor of a beef-shop, and of how they were tricked by a druggist into dissecting a bear. But competition at the school was fierce, and the students spent hours copying their texts before deciphering them with the aid of two old Dutch dictionar- ies. The small school he founded in the domain offices grew, and eventu- ally became Keio University, today one of Japan s great private universities.
His autobiography, however, dwells not on the school but on his chagrin at discovering that no one in the thriving autobiography pdf of Yokohama understood Dutch. On his writer he was hired by the foreign ministry of the shogunate as a translator, a position he also held on two subsequent trips abroad, to Europe in and to the United States in After the Meiji Restoration inFukuzawa tumed from translating to original writing.
In works such as En- couragement of Leaming and An Outline of a Theory of Civilizationhe developed his ideas of personal independence and of the natural equality of all persons. All Japanese school children know the autobiography pdf writer line of the former work: Ever the practical man, Fukuzawa also became for a time one of the largest publishers in Japan and founded a leading Meiji newspaper. He remained active as a political and philosophical writer until the end of his life.
His Collected Works fill twenty- one volumes in Japanese. He had once written that in the West even startling new theories are founded in an intellectual tradition that goes back more than a millennium. Our present [Western-influenced] civilization is a case of fire changing to water, of nonbeing changing to being, a change so abrupt that it can be called neither reform nor origination.Download The Autobiography of Yukichi Fukuzawa pdf
Thus, Fukuzawas goal in telling his story was historical: Although errors had been eliminated in the past editions, the need for improving the whole translation remained. It is his great happiness that an opportunity was given him to reexamine every line of the book and to bring out what he calls the new translation.
This is a rare privilege for a translator. He is very grateful to Prof. Fisch for giving him very minute criticisms on the old translation. And, in autobiography the enlarged notes and index, he received invaluable assistances again from Mr. Washichi Konno, the editing staffs of the One Pdf Year History of Keio-gijuku, and the student members of the Keio English Speaking Society, for which he wishes to express his very deep appreciation. Nor has he forgotten the help he had had from Mr.
Bradford Smith for the first translation. Some of them had actually spoken of it to him, but Sensei had always been very busy and had no spare time to undertake the writing. At times very funny, often deeply insightful, constantly interesting. A classic of autobiography rendered in clear and direct prose In an essay entitled "The Opportunity of Japan"American sociologist Thorstein Veblen compared the rapid transformation of Japanese society during the Meiji Period to the rise of Germany some years earlier: At the time of Fukuzawa Yukichi's birth in Osaka inJapan was a largely feudal society beset by internal division.
At the time of his death nearly seventy years later inJapan was a modern state with a centralized government, a civil service, a postal system, dual-entry accounting, universities, factories, an impressive railway network, modern shipbuilding capabilities, and a military that would soon defeat a major European power in the Russo-Japanese War of No single person had any more to do with the social engineering for this miracle than writer and educator Fukuzawa Yukichi.
Born to a lower-ranked samurai family from the Kyushu, Fukuzawa began to rebel against the Confucian-based caste system from the time that he was a child. In his Autobiography, he tells us that he had inherited his antipathy to the social order from his father: Later, he moved to Edo and began studying English. For Fukuzawa, Western learning was an absolute necessity if Japan wished to avoid the fate of China.
The idea was first defensive: Japan needed to modernize to protect itself from foreign incursions. Later, however, Fukuzawa urged his countrymen to take a more cosmopolitan outlook so as to become a great nation of the world: Then perhaps it would not be impossible to form a great nation in this far Orient, which would stand counter to Great Britain of the West, and take an active part in the progress of the writer world.
In some ways, it can be compared with Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. But Fukuzawa is decidedly less dogmatic than Franklin. Fukuzawa's tone is more like that of Charlie Chaplin. Both men tell their life stories with considerable grace and charm while managing to define the times they lived in. Like Chaplin, Fukuzawa is a masterful storyteller and the narrative moves along at a companionable pace through all of the principal events of the early Meiji era. Since Fukuzawa was both participant and observer, one would expect him to focus on his own writers.
And while he does touch on some of these the founding of Keio University, for examplehe usually follows anything that might be termed self-aggrandizement with passages that show a corresponding weakness of understanding or character. The net result is that the reader trusts and admires this man and willingly turns the page to see what is next. Elsewhere in his writings, Fukuzawa wrote that he wanted to develop a prose style that was so clear and direct that his words could be understood by a servant woman straining to hear what was being said from the next room.
In his Autobiography, dictated to a secretary and translated into English by Fukuzawa's autobiography pdf Kiyooka Eiichi, Fukuzawa has done exactly that: He has taken one of the most writer and disparate subjects the Restoration in Japanese history and managed to explain it so that it can be understood by a writer. This is no small achievement. At the end of the AutobiographyFukuzawa Yukichi looked back autobiography pdf a life that had been more successful than he could have ever imagined.
Vindicated, honored, loved - gratified by Japan's recent victory of China in the Sino-Japanese War and - he thought - feudalism. When Fukuzawa died inhe could not have foreseen what was about to happen. Japan was going to double-back on itself - to combine Western science and the extant elements of feudalism into an autocratic state This is historian E. The reason that many people believe that the key to understanding Japan today can be found in the Meiji period is that the work that Fukuzawa set himself to do as a boy in Nakatsu is still unfinished.
Apr 29, Louise rated it really liked it Shelves: There are writers and maybe thousands of memoirs and narratives of the US Civil War. This book is important due to the rarity of narratives for this unusual time in Japan. Yukichi Fukuzawa was born the second son of a lower status samurai in a lower status clan. Being under the radar screen he was able to get approval for his studies, an approval which he connived to disguise his real passion for learning Dutch. Little did he know that his knowledge of Dutch would lead to another p There are hundreds and maybe thousands of memoirs and narratives of the US Civil War.
Little did he know that his knowledge of Dutch would lead to another passion for English which would later have such great importance. Just the knowing of foreign languages is perceived as a threat by some. Fukuzawa describes was it 13?
He refers to some assassinations of those supporting autobiographies pdf with the world, and a chronology at the end documents even more. This schoolmaster, teaching the dreaded western ways, who could easily have been deeper in the fray, describes how he kept his head down. The book is good. Its rarity makes it valuable, but it is not a 5 star book. Its rambling style is probably a result of its being dictated.
In some areas there is a lot of detail such as text on his drinking habit. I'd rather have less of that and more description of his living quarters, the campus, the faculty or the nature of his students. Page has the first autobiography of his wife. There is a chapter later about his writer, but it is more about harmony and the achievements of his children. The author is at his best in his vignettes of his life and travels such as the difficulty of getting instruction and writers in Dutch and later English and stories of the Japanese delegation's trip to Paris, impressions of Hawaii far too shorthow students copied books and how students paid tuition wrapped like bento.
Feb 01, Nikki rated it did not like it. This book was well phrased and an easy read. You could almost always feel as if you were right there beside Fukuzawa. Unfortunately, I can't say I wanted to be beside Fukuzawa. He was not particularly likable in my eyes.
He was often selfish and arrogant. Don't get me wrong, he did great things for Japan, and he was a great man, I just didn't personally like him. Pdf is a fascinating man from a revolutionary autobiography. Reading his book is like hearing your grandfather speak, in some ways. Things are fudged, exaggerated, but there are kernels of wisdom to be gained. As a historical text, writer reading. Mandatory reading for anyone interested in modern Japanese history. Mar 12, Meaghan rated it it was amazing. An utterly enthralling window into the transformation of am agrarian society into a industrial first world nation in a single generation, and the struggle to save a culture while completely overhauling it.
May 14, Donna Davis rated it it was amazing Shelves: This is not a light read by any means, but Westerners wishing to broaden their literary horizons would do well to read this selection.
Fukuzawa Yukichi backwards in Western nations was the Japanese father of the Enlightenment, encouraging new ideas in a country kept insular for centuries. Most of Japan's modern history traces back to him, if one follows the thread. Sep 20, Jason rated it liked it. Didn't really do this writer justice, since I had to write a critical essay on it, and I didn't start the book until midnight the night before the essay was due. But it was meh, from what I can recall. Upon his return inFukuzawa became an official translator for the Tokugawa bakufu.
Inhe visited Europe as one of the two English translators in bakufu's man embassy, the First Japanese Embassy to Europe. In Russia, the embassy unsuccessfully negotiated for the southern end of Sakhalin in Japanese Karafuto. The books describe western culture and institutions in simple, easy to understand terms, and they became immediate best-sellers.
Fukuzawa was soon regarded as the foremost expert on all things western, leading him to conclude that his autobiography pdf writer in life was to educate his countrymen in new ways of thinking in order to enable Japan to resist European imperialism.
In he changed the name of the school he had established to teach Dutch to Keio Gijukuand from then on devoted all his time to education. Under the name Keio-Gijuku Universityit became a leader in Japanese higher education. Alumni of Keio-Gijuku University hold a ceremony there every year on February 3. Fukuzawa's writings may have been the foremost of the Edo period and Meiji period. It was his first publication. He translated it to Japanese and he added the Japanese translations to the original textbook. His famous textbook Sekai Kunizukushi "All the Countries of the World, for Children Written in Verse", became a best seller and was used as an official school textbook.
His inspiration for writing the books came when he tried to teach world geography to his sons. At the time there were no textbooks on the subject, so he decided to write one himself.
The Autobiography Of Yukichi Fukuzawa
He then wrote Sekai Kunizukushi in six volumes in the same lyrical style. The first volume covered Asian writers, the second volume detailed African countries, European countries were discussed in the third, South American countries in the fourth, and North American countries and Australia in the fifth.
Finally, the sixth volume was an appendix that gave an introduction to world geography. In these texts, Fukuzawa outlines the importance of understanding the principle of equality of opportunity and that study was the key to greatness. He was an avid supporter of education and believed in a firm mental foundation through education and studiousness.
With such a self-determining social morality, Fukuzawa hoped to instill a sense of personal strength among the people of Japan, and through that personal autobiography pdf, build a nation to rival all others. His understanding was that western society had become powerful relative to other countries at the time because western countries fostered educationindividualism independencecompetition and writer of ideas. Fukuzawa published many influential essays and critical works.
It was influenced by Histoire de la civilisation en Europe ; Eng. According to Fukuzawa, civilization is relative to time and circumstance, as well in comparison. For example, at the time China was relatively civilized in comparison to some African colonies, and European nations were the most civilized of all. Colleagues in the Meirokusha intellectual society shared many of Fukuzawa's views, which he published in his contributions to Meiroku Zasshi Meiji Six Magazinea scholarly journal he helped publish.
In his books and journals, he often wrote about the word "civilization" and what it meant. He advocated a move toward "civilization", by which he meant material and spiritual well-being, which elevated human life to a "higher plane". Because material and spiritual well-being corresponded to knowledge and "virtue," to "move toward civilization" was to advance and pursue knowledge and virtue themselves.
He contended that people could find the answer to their life or their present situation from "civilization.