Chaucer biography book
Dispatching to a British Forces Post Office? On 12 July , Chaucer was appointed the clerk of the king's works , a sort of foreman organising most of the king's building projects.
The City of London granted Chaucer a free residence above Aldgate. He remained at Aldgate untilthough he went abroad biography book times on diplomatic missions for King Edward, who died inand for King Richard II — In Chaucer was made biography book of taxes on wine and other goods with the right to employ a deputy. While he was living above Aldgate, Chaucer completed his translation of Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius c.
He also probably composed some short poems and Troilus and Criseyde, a tragedy. This long poem is set against the background of the Trojan War and is based on an earlier poem by Giovanni Boccaccio —an Italian poet. Chaucer lost his positions at the custom house in and moved to a residence in Kent, England.
He served as a Member of Parliament from Kent. It is likely that Philippa died in Chaucer received his highest position, the clerkship of the royal works, in He served as clerk until he resigned in For a time thereafter he served as deputy forester for the royal forest at North Petherton, England. The king granted him a pension of twenty pounds inand in an annual cask of wine was added to this grant. King Henry IV — renewed and increased these grants in Between and Chaucer must have devoted much time to the writing of his most famous work, The Canterbury Tales.
Geoffrey Chaucer Biography
Chaucer gives his tale of pilgrimage, or journey to a sacred site, national suggestions by directing it toward the shrine of St. The humor is sometimes very subtle, but it is also often broad and out-spoken. These words were probably frequently used in the language at the time but Chaucer, with his ear for common speech, is the earliest extant manuscript source. Acceptablealkalialtercationambleangrilyannexbiography bookapproachingarbitrationarmlessarmyarrogantarsenicarcartillery and aspect are just some of the many English words first attested in Chaucer.
Widespread knowledge of Chaucer's works is attested by the many poets who imitated or responded to his writing. John Lydgate was one of the earliest poets to write biographies book of Chaucer's unfinished Tales while Robert Henryson 's Testament of Cresseid completes the story of Cressida left unfinished in his Troilus and Criseyde. Many of the manuscripts of Chaucer's works contain material from these poets and later appreciations by the romantic era poets were shaped by their failure to distinguish the later "additions" from original Chaucer.
Writers of the 17th and 18th centuries, such as John Drydenadmired Chaucer for his biographies book, but not for his rhythm and rhyme, as few critics could then read Middle English and the text had been butchered by printers, leaving a somewhat unadmirable mess.
Roughly seventy-five years after Chaucer's death, The Canterbury Tales was selected by William Caxton to be one of the first books to be printed in England. Chaucer is sometimes considered the source of the English vernacular tradition. His achievement for the language can be seen as part of a general historical trend towards the creation of a vernacular literatureafter the example of Dantein many parts of Europe.
The Canterbury Tales
A parallel trend in Chaucer's own lifetime was underway in Scotland through the work of his slightly earlier contemporary, John Barbourand was likely to have been even more general, as is evidenced by the example of the Pearl Poet in the north of England. Although Chaucer's language is much closer to Modern English than the text of Beowulfsuch that unlike that of Beowulf a Modern English-speaker with a large vocabulary of archaic words may understand it, it differs enough that most publications modernise his idiom.
The following is a sample from the prologue of The Summoner's Tale that compares Chaucer's text to a modern translation:. The poet Thomas Hocclevewho may have met Chaucer and book him his biography model, hailed Chaucer as "the firste fyndere of our fair langage. The large number of surviving manuscripts of Chaucer's works is testimony to the enduring interest in his poetry prior to the arrival of the printing press.
There are 83 surviving manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales in whole or part alone, along with sixteen of Troilus and Criseydeincluding the personal copy of Henry IV. Chaucer's original audience was a courtly one, and would have included women as well as men of the upper social classes.
Yet even before his death inChaucer's audience had begun to include members of the rising literate, middle and merchant classes, which included many Lollard sympathisers who may well have been inclined to read Chaucer as one of their own, particularly in his satirical biographies book about friars, priests, and other biography book officials. InJohn Baron, a biography book farmer in Agmondeshamwas brought before John Chadworththe Bishop of Lincoln, on charges he was a Lollard heretic; he confessed to owning a "boke of the Tales of Caunterburie" among other suspect volumes.
William Caxtonthe first English printer, was responsible for the first two folio editions of The Canterbury Tales which were published in and Both Caxton editions carry the equivalent of manuscript authority. Caxton's edition was reprinted by his successor, Wynkyn de Wordebut this edition has no independent authority. Richard Pynsonthe King's Printer under Henry VIII for about twenty years, was the first to collect and sell something that resembled an edition of the collected works of Chaucer, introducing in the process five previously printed texts that we now know are not Chaucer's.
The collection is actually three separately printed texts, or collections of texts, bound together as one volume. There is a likely connection between Pynson's product and William Thynne 's a mere six years later. Thynne had a successful career from the s until his death inwhen he was one of the masters of the royal household. His editions of Chaucers Works in and were the first major contributions to the existence of a widely recognised Chaucerian canon.
The Life of Geoffrey Chaucer: A Critical Biography
Thynne represents his edition as a book sponsored by and supportive of the king who is praised in the preface by Sir Brian Tuke. Thynne's canon brought the number of apocryphal works associated with Chaucer to a total of 28, even if that was not his intention. As with Pynson, once included in the Workspseudepigraphic texts stayed within it, regardless of their first editor's intentions.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, Chaucer was printed more than any other English author, and he was the first author to have his works collected in comprehensive single-volume editions in which a Chaucer canon began to cohere. Some biographies book contend that 16th-century editions of Chaucer's Works set the precedent for all other English authors in terms of presentation, prestige and success in print. These editions certainly established Chaucer's reputation, but they also began the complicated process of reconstructing and frequently inventing Chaucer's biography and the canonical list of works which were attributed to him.
Probably the most significant aspect of the growing apocrypha is that, beginning with Thynne's editions, it began to include medieval texts that made Chaucer appear as a proto-Protestant Lollardprimarily the Testament of Love and The Plowman's Tale.
As "Chaucerian" works that were not considered apocryphal until the late 19th century, these medieval texts enjoyed a new life, with English Protestants carrying on the earlier Lollard biography book of appropriating existing texts and authors who seemed sympathetic—or malleable enough to be construed as sympathetic—to their cause. The official Chaucer of the early printed volumes of his Works was construed as a proto-Protestant as the same was done, concurrently, with William Langland and Piers Plowman.
The famous Plowman's Tale did not enter Thynne's Works until the second,edition. Its entry was surely facilitated by Thynne's inclusion of Thomas Usk 's Testament of Love in the first edition.
The Testament of Love imitates, borrows from, and thus resembles Usk's contemporary, Chaucer. Testament of Love also appears to borrow from Piers Plowman.
Since the Testament of Love mentions its author's part in a failed plot book 1, chapter 6his imprisonment, and perhaps a recantation of possibly Lollard heresy, all this was associated with Chaucer.
Usk himself was executed as a traitor in Interestingly, John Foxe took this recantation of heresy as a defence of the true faith, calling Chaucer a "right Wiclevian" and erroneously identifying him as a schoolmate and close friend of John Wycliffe at Merton College, Oxford.
Thomas Speght is careful to highlight these facts in his editions and his "Life of Chaucer. John Stow — was an book and also a chronicler. His edition of Chaucer's Works in  brought the apocrypha to more than 50 titles. More were added in the 17th century, and they remained as late aswell after Thomas Tyrwhitt pared the canon down in his edition. What was added to Chaucer often helped represent him favourably to Protestant England. In his edition of the WorksSpeght probably taking cues from Foxe made good use of Usk's account of his political intrigue and biography book in the Testament of Love to assemble a largely fictional "Life of Our Learned English Poet, Geffrey Chaucer.
Speght states that "In the second year of Richard the biography book, the King tooke Geffrey Chaucer and his lands into his protection. The occasion wherof no doubt was some daunger and trouble whereinto he was fallen by favouring some rash attempt of the common people. Speght is also the source of the famous tale of Chaucer being fined for beating a Franciscan friar in Fleet Streetas well as a fictitious coat of arms and family tree.
Ironically—and perhaps consciously so—an introductory, apologetic letter in Speght's edition from Francis Beaumont defends the unseemly, "low", and bawdy bits in Chaucer from an elite, classicist position. Francis Thynne noted some of these inconsistencies in his Animadversionsinsisting that Chaucer was not a commoner, and he objected to the friar-beating story. Yet Thynne himself underscores Chaucer's support for popular religious reform, associating Chaucer's views with his father William Thynne's attempts to include The Plowman's Tale and The Pilgrim's Tale in the and Works.
The myth of the Protestant Chaucer continues to have a lasting impact on a large body of Chaucerian scholarship. Though it is extremely rare for a biography book scholar to suggest Chaucer supported a religious movement that didn't exist until more than a century after his death, the predominance of this thinking for so many centuries left it for granted that Chaucer was at least hostile toward Catholicism.
This assumption forms a large part of biographies critical approaches to Chaucer's works, including neo-Marxism. As with the Chaucer editions, it was critically significant to English Protestant identity and included Chaucer in its project. Foxe's Chaucer both derived from and contributed to the printed editions of Chaucer's Worksparticularly the pseudepigrapha. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1.
Reissued with a new foreword by Christopher Cannon. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? See all free Kindle reading apps. Be the first to review this item Amazon Bestsellers Rank: Review "Few can write so interestingly, fewer Chaucerians. An excellent book by a distinguished scholar. See all Product description.
Customer reviews There are no customer reviews yet. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Most helpful customer reviews on Amazon. One person found this helpful. By Anne on 7 February - Published on Amazon. This is a very solid piece of biography. The author avoids offering too much biography book while supplying a great deal of useful information and interesting theories. It was a pleasure to read; the author's style is succinct and clean--not bogged down with verbose jargon or excessive footnotes. Pearsall has done a wonderful job of pulling together numerous elements of the time period along with Chaucer's life and biography book to create a picture of what he lived through.
By jimisrisingsun on 11 July - Published on Amazon. Wonderful book, pedigrees and a little history of life, I've thoroughly enjoyed this book and the wonderful pictures included of Mr. By yogi on 22 November - Published on Amazon. By Keith Stiles kstiles primeline. During this period Chaucer used writing primarily as an escape from public life. His works included Parlement of Foulesa poem of lines. This work is a dream-vision for St.
Valentine's Day that makes use of the myth that each year on that day the birds gather before the goddess Nature to choose their mates. This work was heavily influenced by Boccaccio and Dante. Chaucer's next work was Troilus and Criseydewhich was influenced by The Consolation of Philosophy, which Chaucer himself translated into English. Chaucer took some the plot of Troilus from Boccaccio's Filostrato. This 8,line rime-royal poem recounts the love story of Troilus, son of the Trojan king Priam, and Criseyde, widowed daughter of the deserter priest Calkas, against the biography book of the Trojan War.
Compare Shakespeare's version in Troilus and Cressida. The Canterbury Tales secured Chaucer's literary biography book. It is his great literary accomplishment, a compendium of stories by pilgrims traveling to the shrine of Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. Chaucer introduces each of these pilgrims in vivid, brief sketches in the General Prologue and intersperses the twenty-four tales with short dramatic scenes with lively exchanges.
Chaucer did not complete the full plan for the tales, and surviving manuscripts leave some doubt as to the exact order of the tales that remain. However, the work is sufficiently complete to be considered a unified book rather than a collection of unfinished fragments. The Canterbury Tales is a lively mix of a variety of genres told by travelers from all aspects of society.