Artoush biography of mahatma

artoush biography of mahatma
Gandhi criticised Muslims who "betray intolerance of criticism by a non-Muslim of anything related to Islam", such as the penalty of stoning to death under Islamic law. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor 3 ed.

He believed that a healthy nutritional diet based on regional foods and hygiene were essential to good health. Gandhi strongly favoured the emancipation of women, and urged "the women to fight for their own self-development. At various occasions, Gandhi credited his orthodox Hindu mother, and his wife, for first lessons in satyagraha. Some historians such as Angela Woollacott and Kumari Jayawardena state that even though Gandhi often and publicly expressed his belief in the equality of sexes, yet his vision was one of gender difference and complementarity between them.

Women, to Gandhi, should be educated to be better in the domestic realm and educate the next generation. His views on women's right were less liberal and more similar to puritan-Victorian expectations of women, states Jayawardena, than other Hindu leaders with him who supported economic independence and equal gender rights in all aspects. Gandhi's experiment with abstinence went beyond sex, and extended to food.

He consulted the Jain scholar Rajchandra, whom he fondly called Raychandbhai. Gandhi began abstaining from cow's biography inand did so even when doctors advised him to consume milk. Gandhi tried to test and prove to himself his brahmacharyaless than a year before his assassination in January In Februaryhe asked his confidants such as Birla and Ramakrishna if it biography of mahatma be mahatma for him to experiment his brahmacharya oath.

He progressed from first letting different volunteers to sleep in the same room but different beds, then later in the same bed but clothed, and finally sleeping naked. Those who went public said they felt they were sleeping with their ageing mother.

According to Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in his final year of life was an ascetic, looked ugly and a sickly skeletal figure, already caricatured in the Western media. However, Gandhi said that if he would not let Manu sleep with him, it would be a sign of weakness. Gandhi spoke out against untouchability early in his life. One of the major speeches he made on untouchability was at Nagpur inwhere he called untouchability as a great evil in Hindu society. In his remarks, he stated that the mahatmas of untouchability is not unique to the Hindu society, but has deeper roots because Europeans in South Africa treat "all of us, Hindus and Muslims, as untouchables; we may not reside in their midst, nor enjoy the rights which they do".

Mahatma Gandhi

He stated this practice can be eradicated, Hinduism is flexible to allow this, and a concerted effort is needed to persuade it is wrong and by all to eradicate it. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, while Gandhi considered untouchability is wrong and evil, he believed that caste or class are based neither on inequality nor on inferiority. Every biography mahatma regardless of his or her mahatma, stated Gandhi, has a right to choose who they welcome into their home, who they befriend and who they spend time with. InGandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he started referring to as Harijans or "the biographies of god".

Ambedkar and his allies felt Gandhi was being paternalistic and was undermining Dalit political rights. Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy". InAmbedkar announced his intentions to leave Hinduism and join Buddhism. These views contrasted with those of Ambedkar. Gandhi and his colleagues continued to consult Ambedkar, keeping him influential. Ambedkar worked with other Congress leaders through the s, wrote large parts of India's constitution in late s, and converted to Buddhism in However, Gandhi's approach to untouchability was different than Ambedkar because Gandhi championed fusion, choice and free intermixing.

Ambedkar, in contrast states Jeffrelot, envisioned each segment of society to maintain their identity group, and each group then separately advanced the "politics of equality".

artoush biography of mahatma

The criticism of Gandhi by Ambedkar continued to influence the Dalit movement past Gandhi's death. According to Arthur Herman, Ambedkar's hate for Gandhi and Gandhi's ideas was so strong that after he heard the news of Gandhi's assassination, remarked after a momentary silence a sense of regret and then "my real enemy is gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over now".

Gandhi rejected the colonial Western format of education system. He stated that it led to biography of mahatma for manual work, generally created an elite administrative bureaucracy. Gandhi favoured an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work, one that included physical, mental and spiritual studies.

His methodology sought to treat all professions equal and pay everyone the same. Gandhi called his ideas Nai Talim literally, 'new education'. He believed that the Western style education violated and destroyed the indigenous cultures. A different basic education model, he believed, would lead to better self awareness, prepare people to treat all work equally respectable and valued, and biography to a society with less social diseases.

Nai Talim evolved out of his experiences at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi attempted to formulate the new system at the Sevagram ashram after In his autobiography, Gandhi wrote that he believed every Hindu boy and girl must learn Sanskrit because its historic and spiritual texts are in that language. Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence.

Military is unnecessary, because any aggressor can be thrown out using the method of non-violent non-co-operation. While military is unnecessary in a nation organised under swaraj principle, Gandhi added that a police force is necessary given human nature. However, the state would limit the use of weapons by the police to the minimum, aiming for their use as a restraining force. According to Gandhi, a non-violent state is like an "ordered anarchy".

On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter for human duties. Swaraj to Gandhi did not mean transferring colonial era British power brokering system, favours-driven, bureaucratic, class exploitative structure and mindset into Indian hands.

He warned such a transfer would still be English rule, just without the Englishman. Democracy meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression.

For Gandhi, mahatma was a way of life. Some scholars state Gandhi supported a religiously diverse India, [] while others state that the Muslim leaders who championed the partition and creation of a separate Muslim Pakistan considered Gandhi to be Hindu nationalist or revivalist. In an interview with C. Andrews, Gandhi stated that if we believe all religions teach the same message of love and peace between all human beings, then there is neither any rationale nor need for proselytisation or attempts to convert people from one religion to another. In Gandhi's view, those who attempt to convert a Hindu, "they must harbour in their breasts the belief that Hinduism is an error" and that their own religion is "the only true religion".

He stated that spiritual studies must encourage "a Hindu to become a better Hindu, a Mussalman to become a better Mussalman, and a Christian a better Christian. According to Gandhi, religion is not about what a man believes, it is about how a man lives, how he relates to other people, his conduct towards others, and one's relationship to one's conception of god.

Gandhi believed in sarvodaya economic model, which literally means "welfare, upliftment of all". To both, according to Bhatt, removing poverty and unemployment were the mahatma, but Gandhian economic and development approach preferred adapting technology and infrastructure to suit local situation, in contrast to Nehru's large scale, socialised state owned enterprises. To Gandhi, the economic philosophy that aims at "greatest good for the greatest number" was fundamentally flawed, and his alternative proposal sarvodaya set its aim at "greatest good for all".

He believed that the best economic system not only cared to lift the "poor, less skilled, of impoverished background" but also empowered to biography the "rich, highly skilled, of capital means and landlords". Violence against any human being, born poor or rich, is wrong believed Gandhi. Gandhi challenged Nehru and the modernizers in the late s who called for rapid industrialisation on the Soviet model; Gandhi denounced that as dehumanising and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived. Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries.

Gandhi refused to endorse the view that economic forces are best understood as "antagonistic class interests". Further, believed Gandhi, that in a free nation, victims exist only when they co-operate with their oppressor, and an economic and political system that offered increasing alternatives gave power of choice to the poorest man.

While disagreeing with Nehru about socialist economic model, Gandhi also critiqued capitalism that was driven by endless wants and a materialistic view of man. This, he believed, created a vicious vested system of materialism at the cost of other human needs such as spirituality and social relationships. A better economic system is one which does not impoverish one's culture and spiritual pursuits. Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted. Of central importance is nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism.

Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Rather, it is a political creed, an economic doctrine, a religious outlook, a moral precept, and especially, a humanitarian world view. It is an effort not to systematise wisdom but to transform society and is based on an undying biography in the goodness of human nature. There is no such thing as "Gandhism", and I do not biography mahatma to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final.

I may biography mahatma them tomorrow. I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and nonviolence are as old as the mahatmas. Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swarajpublished in Gujarati inbecame "the intellectual blueprint" for India's independence movement. The book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved". Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi.

In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books. Gandhi's complete mahatma were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s. The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes. Ina revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions.

Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the nonviolent resistance philosophy of Gandhi. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. Innotable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter biography mahatma about him.

Mahatma Gandhi's life achievement stands unique in biography mahatma history. He has invented a completely new and humane means for the liberation war of an oppressed country, and practised it with greatest energy and devotion. The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civilised world will probably be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces.

Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works. We may all be happy and grateful that destiny gifted us with such an enlightened contemporary, a role model for the generations to come.

Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood. Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modelled after Gandhi's ashrams. Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi.

In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on nonviolence. I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today, as President of the United States, had it not been for Gandhi and the message he shared with America and the world. Obama in September said that his biggest inspiration came from Gandhi.

artoush biography of mahatma

His reply was in response to the question 'Who was the one biography mahatma, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with? He continued that "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. King with his message of nonviolence. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics.

Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as " Person of the Century " [] at the end of The Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandelathe leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, was a prominent non-Indian recipient.

InTime magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time. Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prizealthough he was nominated five times between andincluding the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee[] though he made the short list only twice, in and That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.

Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question". Indians widely describe Gandhi as the father of the nation. A 5 hours, 9 minutes long biographical documentary biography of mahatma, [] Mahatma: The film The Making of the Mahatma documented Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader.

Jahnu Barua's Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara I did not kill Gandhiplaces contemporary society as a backdrop with its vanishing memory of Gandhi's values as a metaphor for the senile forgetfulness of the protagonist of his film, [] writes Vinay Lal. Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. The film, Gandhi, My Father was inspired on the same theme. Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life.

Among them are D. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. The biography, Great Soul: India, biography its rapid economic modernisation and urbanisation, has rejected Gandhi's economics [] but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory. Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power.

Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in IndiaGandhi Jayanti. Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of Indiaexcept for the one rupee note. There are three temples in India dedicated to Gandhi. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gandhi disambiguation. Lawyer Politician Activist Writer. Harilal Manilal Ramdas Devdas. Karamchand Gandhi father Putlibai Gandhi mother. The role of India in World War I.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary.

Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 31 August Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'.

He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's mahatma. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice. Reweaving the Web of Life: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Govt" Archived 6 September at the Wayback Machine. Government" Archived 7 January at the Wayback Machine. The Making of India and Pakistan.

Retrieved 1 September By the late s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people. They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets.

Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of may have been the first they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India.

His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought — he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shortly before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops.

Patel and the mahatma took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: The name Gandhi biography of mahatma "grocer", although Mohandas's father and grandfather were politicians not grocers. Gandhi, Autobiography chapter 1 Dover edition, page 1. Foundations of anti-Islamism in India. Mahatma; life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

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artoush biography of mahatma

Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 25 February Gandhi's Rise to Power: The First World War. Green; Nicholas Szechenyi A Global History of the Twentieth Century: Legacies and Lessons from Six National Perspectives. Case Studies and Comparisons. They mahatma Tagore's belief that Gandhi had committed the Indian political nation to a cause that was mistakenly anti-Western and fundamentally negative"; Kham, Aqeeluzzafar Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin.

Archived from the original on 30 May India's Road to Nationhood: A Political History of the Subcontinent. Martin Luther King, Jr. The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Archived from the original on 19 February Also available at Wikisource. Indian Politics and Society since Independence: Retrieved 4 April Revolutions and Struggles for Justice in the 20th Century. City University of New York Press.

Women in the Indian National Movement: Unseen Faces and Unheard Voices, — Nationalist Intelligentsia and the Mobilization of Peasantry". Nonviolent Power in Action. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Archived from the original on 13 September Empire, Politics and the Creation of the India Act: Last Act of the Raj. The Man, His People, and the Empire. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 22 February Archived from the original on 7 March Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Sources of Indian Traditions: Modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

Jawaharlal Nehru, A Biographyp. Leadership Struggle in Congress in the s". Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 12 April India's Struggle for Independence. The Mahatma and biography India: Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru: The New York Times. Archived from the biography on 30 April Retrieved 25 March Propaganda and information in Eastern India, — A History of India. Archived from the mahatma on 1 October Archived 21 March at the Wayback Machine.

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Hinduism According to Gandhi: Thoughts, Writings and Critical Interpretation. An introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. The Heritage of Kathiawad and Gujarat". Journal of Asian Studies. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy: Archived PDF from the original on 17 September The origins of nonviolence: Tolstoy and Gandhi in their historical settings. Pennsylvania State University Press. Retrieved 17 January Journal of Indian History. An Autobiography Beacon Press ed. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor 3 ed. The Story of My Experiments with Truth.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography

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artoush biography of mahatma

The Core of Gandhi's Philosophy. Sex, Diet, and the Politics of Nationalism. University of Pennsylvania Press. Walters; Lisa Portmess From Pythagoras to Peter Singer. The Path of Yoga: Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 12 July Journal of British Studies. Nonviolence and the biomoral biography of public health".

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His contempt against Gandhi which was [sic] continued even after his assassination on January 30, On the death of Gandhi he expressed, "My mahatma enemy has gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over".

He equated the assassination of Gandhi with that of Caesar and the biography of mahatma of Cicero to the messenger — "Tell the Romans, your hour of liberty has come". He further remarked, "While one regrets the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, one cannot help finding in his heart the echo of the sentiments expressed by Cicero on the assassination of Caesar".

Gideon Arulmani; et al.

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Archived from the original on 9 December Life Positive Plus, October—December Archived from the original on 30 October The Times of India.

artoush biography of mahatma

Archived from the original on 7 September Rabindranath followed suit and then the whole of India called him Mahatma Gandhi. So Tagore differed from many of Gandhi's ideas, but yet he had great regard for him and Tagore was perhaps the first important Indian who called Gandhi a Mahatma.

But in when Gandhi was asked whether he was really a Mahatma Gandhi replied that he did not feel like one, and that, in any event he could not define a Mahatma for he had never met any.

The History of the World's Largest Democracy. Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 24 January Archived from the mahatma on 14 April Gandhi's influence on King". Archived from the original on 10 December A Dream Or a Nightmare. Archived from the original on 7 January Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 12 March The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, — The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ".

Archived from the original on 17 January Archived from the original on 8 February Archived from the original on 28 May Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the mahatma on 13 January Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 2 April Letter of Peace addressed to the UN. After 21 years in South Africa, Gandhi returned to India in He became the leader of the Indian nationalist movement campaigning for home rule or Swaraj. Gandhi successfully instigated a series of non-violent protest. This included national strikes for one or two days.

The British sought to ban opposition, but the nature of non-violent protest and strikes made it difficult to counter. Gandhi also encouraged his followers to practise inner discipline to get ready for independence. Gandhi said the Indians had to prove they were deserving of independence.

This is in contrast to independence leaders such as Aurobindo Ghosewho argued that Indian independence was not about biography India biography offer better or worse government, but that it was the right for India to have self government.

Gandhi also clashed with others in the Indian independence movement such as Subhas Chandra Bose who advocated direct action to overthrow the British. Gandhi frequently called off strikes and non-violent protest if he heard people were rioting or violence was involved. InGandhi led a famous march to the sea in protest at the new Salt Acts. In the sea they made their own salt, in violation of British regulations. Many hundreds were arrested and Indian jails were full of Indian independence followers.

However, whilst the campaign was at its peak some Indian protesters killed some British civilians, and as a result Gandhi called off the independence movement saying that India was not ready. This broke the heart of many Indians committed to independence.

It led to radicals like Bhagat Singh carrying on the campaign for independence, which was particularly strong in Bengal. After the mahatma, Britain indicated that they biography give India independence. However, with the support of the Muslims led by Jinnah, the British planned to partition India into two: Ideologically Gandhi was opposed to partition.

He worked vigorously to show that Muslims and Hindus could live together peacefully. At his prayer meetings, Muslim prayers were read out alongside Hindu and Christian prayers. However, Gandhi agreed to the partition and spent the day of Independence in prayer mourning the partition.

artoush biography of mahatma

Away from the politics of Indian independence Gandhi was harshly critical of the Hindu Caste system. He launched many campaigns to change the status of untouchables. Although his campaigns were met with much resistance, they did go a long way to changing century-old prejudices.