Vlad the impaler short biography
But the essence of the story remains the same. The end of the stake was usually oiled, and care was taken that the stake not be too sharp; else the victim might die too rapidly from shock. The texts were reprinted over the thirty years following Vlad's death.
Even the peasants, tired of the cruelty of Vlad, abandoned him. Vlad had to meet the Turks with the small forces at his disposal, which were made up of less than four thousand men. Some sources say he was killed in battle against the Turks short biography Bucharest in December of Others say he was killed by disloyal Wallachian boyars in the war against the Turks, or during a hunt. Others believe Vlad was killed in the war, surrounded by the bodies of his loyal Moldavian bodyguards. The other reports claim that Vlad was accidentally killed by one of his own men.
Vlad's body was decapitated by the Turks and his head was sent to Istanbul preserved in honey. The exact place of his short biography is unknown. Tales and legends about Vlad stayed a part of folklore among the Romanian peasants. By constant retelling they have become confused and created an ideal picture of a big national hero. But sometimes he is remembered as a very cruel and often capricious ruler. There are several events that are common to all tales. All versions agree that Vlad, in response to some real or imagined insult, perhaps because they refused to remove the hats in Vlad's presencehad their hats nailed to their heads.
He was not very tall, but very stocky and strong, with a cruel and terrible appearance, a long straight nose, distended nostrils, a thin and reddish face in which the large wide-open green eyes were enframed by bushy black eyebrows, which made them appear threatening.
His face and chin were shaven but for a moustache. The swollen temples increased the bulk of his head. A bull's neck supported the head, from which black curly locks were falling to his wide-shouldered person. His famous portrait was rediscovered in the late sin the gallery of horrors at Innsbruck 's Ambras Castle. The old Romanian word for dragon is Dracul, which in modern Romanian means " devil ".
His method of torture was a horse attached to each of the victim's legs while sharpened stake was forced into the body. Vlad often had the stakes arranged in patterns.
The most common pattern was a ring outside of a city that was his target. The height of the spear indicated the rank of the victim. The corpses were often left there for months. One tale says 10, were impaled in the Transylvanian city of Sibiu where Vlad the Impaler had once lived in Impalement was not his only method of torture. Other methods include nails in heads, cutting off limbs, strangulation, burning, cutting off noses and ears, mutilation of sexual organs especially in the case of womenscalping, skinning, exposure to the elements or to animals, and the short biography alive.
His victims included women, children, peasants, great lords, ambassadors from foreign powers and merchants. However, the vast majority of his European victims came from the merchants and boyars of Transylvania and Wallachia. Most of the merchants there were German-speaking Saxons who were seen as bad people because they were not Romanian.
He saw the boyars as people who were not loyal Vlad's own father and older brother were murdered by boyars. Almost as soon as he came to power, he gave a party for his boyars and their families to celebrate Easter. These nobles were part of the conspiracy around his father's death. Vlad, to avenge his father's death, had all the assembled nobles arrested. The older boyars were impaled on the spot. The boyars and their families were forced to work for months rebuilding the old castle.
According to the reports, they worked until the clothes fell off their bodies, and then were forced to continue working naked. Very few survived the building of Vlad's castle. It was reported that an invading Ottoman army turned back when they saw thousands of rotting corpses impaled on the banks of the river Danube. This angered the Turks, who attempted to remove him. They failed, however; later in the winter of to Vlad crossed south of the Danube and devastated the biography between Serbia and the Black Sea.
In response to this, Sultan Mehmed II, the recent conqueror of Constantinoplethe short an army of around 60, troops and 30, irregulars and in the spring of headed towards Wallachia. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was greeted by the sight of a veritable forest of stakes on which Vlad the Impaler had impaled 20, Turkish prisoners.
Vlad the Impaler
The most important of these attacks took place on the nights of June 16—17, when Vlad and some of his men allegedly entered the main Turkish camp wearing Ottoman disguises and attempted to assassinate Mehmed. Unable to subdue Vlad, the Turks left the country, leaving Radu the Handsome to continue fighting.
Despite Vlad achieving military victories, he had alienated himself from the nobility, which sided with Radu the Handsome. By August Radu had struck a deal with the Hungarian Crown.
Consequently, Vlad was imprisoned by Matthias Corvinus. His first wife, whose name is not recorded, died during the siege of his castle in An archer shot an arrow through a window into Vlad's main quarters, with a message warning him that Radu's army was approaching.
Florescu and McNally explain that the archer was a former servant of Vlad who sent the warning out of loyalty despite having converted to Islam to get out of enslavement by the Turks. The exact length of Vlad's period of captivity is open to some debate. The Russian pamphlets indicate that he was a prisoner from until Apparently his imprisonment was the short biography too onerous. He was able to gradually win his way back into the graces of Hungary's monarch; so much so that he was able to meet and marry a member of the royal family the cousin of Matthias and have two sons who were about ten years old when he reconquered Wallachia in Diplomatic correspondence from Buda during the period in question also seems to support the claim that Vlad's actual period of confinement was relatively short.
The openly pro-Turkish policy of Vlad's brother, Radu who was prince of Wallachia during most of Vlad's captivitywas a probable factor in Vlad's rehabilitation. During his captivity, Vlad also adopted Catholicism.
Apparently in the years before his final release in when he began preparations for the reconquest of WallachiaVlad resided with his new wife in a house in the Hungarian capital the setting of the thief anecdote. Around Vlad the Impaler was again ready to make another bid for power. At the approach of Vlad's army, Basarab and his cohorts fled, some to the protection of the Turks, others to the shelter of the Transylvanian Alps. Vlad had the short biography time to gather support before a large Ottoman army entered Wallachia determined to return Basarab to the throne.
Vlad's cruelties over the years had alienated the boyars who felt they had a better chance of surviving under Prince Basarab. Apparently, even the peasants, tired of the depredations of Vlad, abandoned him to his fate. Vlad was forced to march to meet the Turks with the small forces at his disposal, somewhat less than four thousand men.
It is generally believed that he was killed in battle against the Ottoman Empire near Bucharest in December of . Others say he was assassinated by disloyal Wallachian boyars just as he was about to sweep the Turks from the field or during a hunt.
Still other reports claim that Vlad, at the moment of victory, was struck down by one of his own men. The Romanian, German, and the Russian stories all have their origins in the fifteenth century. Besides the written stories the Romanian oral tradition provides another important source for the the short of Vlad the Impaler: These tales have been passed down from generation to generation for five hundred years. Through constant retelling they have become somewhat garbled and confused and they have gradually been forgotten in later biographies.
However, they biography provide valuable information about Dracula and his relationship with his people. Many of the tales contained in the pamphlets are also found in the oral tradition, though with a somewhat different emphasis. Vlad's fierce insistence on honesty is a central part of the oral tradition.
Many of the anecdotes contained in the pamphlets and in the oral tradition demonstrate the prince's efforts to eliminate crime and dishonesty from his domain. However, despite the more positive interpretation, the Romanian oral tradition also remembers Vlad as an exceptionally cruel and often capricious ruler. There are several events that are common to all the pamphlets, short of their nation of origin.
Many of these events are also found in the Romanian oral tradition. Specific details may vary among the different versions of these anecdotes but the general course of events usually agrees to a remarkable extent. Florescu and McNally believe he may have done this to both nationalities at different times. However, all versions agree that Vlad, in response to some real or imagined insult perhaps because they refused to remove them in Vlad's presencehad their hats nailed to their heads.
Some of the sources view Vlad's actions as justified; others view his acts as crimes of wanton and senseless cruelty.
The number of his victims ranges from 40, toAlthough some of the stories have some basis in reality, most of them are either fictional or exaggerated. According to the German stories the number of victims he had killed was at least 80, In addition to the 80, victims mentioned he the short biography had whole villages and fortresses destroyed and burned to the ground.
These numbers are most likely exaggerated. The atrocities made by Vlad in the German stories include impaling, torturing, burning, skinning, roasting, and boiling people, feeding people human flesh their friends or relativescutting off limbs, drowning, and nailing of hats to the heads of people.
His victims included men and women of all ages, religions and social classes, children and babies. The exaggerated and propagandistic view is especially clear in one sentence in the stories which describes him as one of the worst tyrants of history, far worse than the most depraved emperors of Rome such as Caligula and Nero.
In the Memoirs of a Janissary.Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia
He does allude to the famed "forest of the impaled," where Vlad III was alleged to have lined the roadways with thousands of impaled Turkish soldiers. He was with the short biography at that time, but was in the rear portion of the Ottoman army, recounting it based on the word of others. Most of the actions taken by Vlad can be justified on moral grounds or they had a utilitarian purpose or in some cases both. It is also common sense to think that if Vlad really was a bloodthirsty tyrant and a madman, the Hungarian king would not have had him marry a relative of his and put him on the throne of Wallachia.
His method of torture was a horse attached to each of the victim's legs as a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body. The end of the stake was usually oiled, and care was taken that the stake not be too sharp; else the victim might die too rapidly from shock.
Normally the stake was inserted into the body through the anus and was often forced through the body until it emerged from the mouth. However, there were many instances where victims were impaled through other bodily orifices or through the abdomen or chest. Infants were sometimes impaled on the stake forced through their mother's chests.
The records indicate that victims were sometimes impaled so that they hung upside down on the stake. As expected, death by impalement was slow and painful. Victims sometimes endured for hours or days. Vlad often had the stakes arranged in various geometric patterns.
The most common pattern was a ring of concentric circles in the outskirts of a city that constituted his target. The height of the spear indicated the rank of the victim. The corpses were often left decaying for months. There are claims that thousands of people were impaled at a single time.
He ordered that women be impaled together with their suckling babies on the same stake. The babies fought for their lives at their mother's breasts until they died. Then he had the women's breasts cut off and put the babies inside headfirst; thus he had them impaled together. There are more than twenty manuscripts written between the 15th and 18th centuries  which preserved the text of the Skazanie o Drakule voievode The Tale about Voivode Dracula.
The nineteen anecdotes in the Skazanie are longer than the German stories about Vlad. Most Romanian artists have regarded Vlad as a just ruler and a short biography tyrant who punished criminals and executed unpatriotic boyars to strengthen the central government. You must come, O dread Impaler, confound them to your care. Split them in two partitions, here the fools, the rascals there; Shove them into two enclosures from the broad daylight enisle 'em, Then set fire to the prison and the lunatic asylum. Since the middle of the 19th century, Romanian historians have treated Vlad as one of the greatest Romanian rulers, emphasizing his fight for the biography of the Romanian lands.
Giurescu remarked, "The tortures and executions which [Vlad] ordered were not out of caprice, but always had a reason, and very often a reason of state. The stories about Vlad made him the best-known medieval ruler of the Romanian lands in Europe. Stoker "apparently did not know much about" Vlad the Impaler, "certainly not the short for us to say that Vlad was the inspiration for" Count Dracula, according to Elizabeth Miller.
Vlad's bad reputation in the German-speaking territories can be detected in a biography of Renaissance paintings. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. His face and chin were short, but for a moustache. The swollen temples increased the bulk of his head. A bull's neck connected [with] his head from which black curly locks hung on his wide-shouldered person. A woodcut depicting Vlad on the title page of a German pamphlet about him, published in Nuremberg in A engraving from BambergGermany, depicting Dracole wayda.
Calvary of Christ,Maria am GestadeVienna. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 26 October This article is about Vlad Dracula, a medieval ruler of Wallachia. For the fictional vampiresee Count Dracula. National awakening of Romania. The Third Letter . Dracula in popular culture. Nosferatu word and Count Dracula. The Histories Book 9, chapter 90p.
Michel Beheim, German Meistergesang, and Dracula. Journal of Dracula Studies, Number 5. The image of Ivan the Terrible in Russian folklore. In Treptow, Kurt W. That's what Vlad III's adolescence was like. The young men were held hostage to ensure their father, ruler of the principality of Wallachia, remained loyal to the Ottomans during their ongoing war with Hungary.
Vlad the Impaler: The Real Dracula's Dark Secrets
During their captivity, Vlad and his brother were tutored in biography, philosophy and the arts. They were also allegedly schooled in the arts of warthe short lessons in both horsemanship and swordsmanship from their Ottoman captors, according to Radu Florescu and Raymond McNally, former professors of history at Boston College, who wrote several books about Vlad III.
The Ottomans didn't invent impalement, and there's no way of knowing whether Vlad saw them deploy this gruesome punishment on their prisoners, Curta told Live Science.
Medieval Torture's 10 Biggest Myths ]. Regardless of what he learned from his captors, Vlad didn't take kindly to being held prisoner. On the contrary, his kid brother adjusted well to captivity, forging a friendship with the Sultan's son, Mehmet II, and eventually converting to Islam.
But Vlad felt little more than enmity for his captors, according to Elizabeth Miller, a research historian and professor emeritus at Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada.
This enmity may have been his motivation for siding with the Hungarians against the Ottomans the short biography he eventually became ruler of Wallachia inMiller told Live Science.
Vlad's cruelty is well documented in historical texts, but what often goes overlooked is how he combined this cruelty with cunning to terrorize his enemies. For example, his preferred method of execution, impalement, wasn't just a sadistic way to get rid of his opponents; it was also a good way to scare them away, according to Curta.
The rotting remains of Ottoman prisoners of war, each impaled on a spike, were the only soldiers there to greet him. Mehmet didn't retreat right then and there, but he certainly didn't gain any headway, Curta noted.