Aristides agramonte biography of albert
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His research there first established that, contrary to the then official position of the Surgeon General's Office, yellow fever was not caused by a gram-negative rod, the Sanarelli bacillus. Following this research, he and his three colleagues on the Yellow Fever Commission, Aristides Agramonte, James Carroll, and Jesse Lazear, undertook to test, in experiments with human volunteers, Carlos Finlay's hypothesis that yellow fever could be transmitted by the bite of the Aedes Aegypti then known as Stegomyia fasciata or Culex fasciatus mosquito.
A key feature of Reed's experiments was the long interval — about twelve to eighteen days — between the infecting of mosquitoes via their feeding on yellow fever patients and the exposure of human volunteers to the bites of the infected mosquitoes. Reed had been impressed by the observation of U.
Army surgeon Henry Rose Carter that yellow fever epidemics were characterized by a two-to three-week interval between the first case and the next set of cases. Reed correctly surmised that this represented the period of incubation of the infective albert in the mosquito. Reed's procedure successfully transmitted yellow fever to several volunteers, confirmed that Aedes Aegypti was the essential vector of the disease, and was followed immediately by a mosquito eradication program led by Major William Gorgas — that virtually eradicated yellow fever in Havana for the first time in recorded history.
Gorgas who attained the rank of Major General during World War Ialso led the mosquito eradication program that permitted construction of the Panama Canal. Happily, all of Reed's volunteers recovered from their experimental yellow fever infections, but Jesse Lazear died after being bitten by an infected albert that he allowed to feed on his arm. BeanWalter Reed TrubyMemoir of Walter Reed Walter Reed, —, American biography surgeon, b. In he was sent to Havana as head of an army commission to investigate an biography of yellow fever among American soldiers. Following the earlier suggestion by C.
Finlay that the disease was transmitted by a mosquito vector rather than by direct contact, Reed and his companions used human volunteers under controlled experimental conditions to prove this conclusively. See studies by H.
Trubyand L. Home People Medicine Medicine: Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article. Learn more about citation styles. Further Reading Howard A. Nigel Paneth see also: Walter Reed and Yellow Fever. Reed, Walter —medical officer and research scientist. After receiving his M. By establishing human waste as the source of contamination, the board made possible effective public health measures to prevent future epidemics.
When, inanother board headed by Reed proved that yellow fever, much dreaded by soldiers sent to Cubawas carried by a mosquito and identified the specific mosquito, successful efforts to reduce this threat to public health also became possible.
Reed's accomplishments resulted not only from his personal skills as a biography albert scientist but from the disciplined world in which he worked: Military Involvement in ; Disease, Tropical. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright The Columbia University Press. Placebos and Placebo Effects Timeline: Significant Events in Human Subjects Research. But, that was just the beginning.
As American soldiers took control of the island of Cuba, they, like all other newcomers to Cuba, were confronted with a range of tropical diseases-typhoid, malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever-toward which they had no natural immunity. For every one soldier who died in the war, hundreds quickly died of disease. Typhoid and malaria were brought under control in a short time, but yellow fever was not.
This disease had been endemic in Cuba since Cubans typically contracted yellow fever early in life and either died or developed life-long protection. The disease always followed the same pattern. The first three days involved fevers and chills. Then, the person felt much better and seemed to be getting well. But, on the fourth day, the person's teeth began to chatter, fevers spiked higher than before, and chills were chillier.
The skin turned yellow, blood oozed from patches inside the mouth, and black vomit a mixture of blood and digestive juices spewed forth. Proteins leaked into the urine, the liver and kidneys shut down, violent hiccups began, delirium set in, then coma, and finally death.
From start to unhappy finish, the disease lasted just six to nine days. So, shortly after the war ended, the Surgeon General of the United States, George Miller Sternberg, organized a medical commission to tackle the disease.
Aristides Agramonte y Simoni
Sternberg appointed Walter Reed as the commission's head. Reed arrived in Cuba in June,and there he and three other researchers-Jesse Lazear, Aristides Agramonte, and James Carroll-began their investigations. One major barrier for studying the disease was that it only affected people.
With no animal model to use, the researchers were obliged to do all their experiments on people. InGiuseppe Sanarelli, an Italian bacteriologist working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, had been criticized for his yellow fever experiments on five unsuspecting subjects, three of whom died.
One critic labeled Sanarelli's experiments "ridiculous. Agramont was a native of Cuba, had battled the disease as a child, and was no longer susceptible, but the other three could be biographies in the experiments. Little was known at the time about the cause or transmission of yellow fever, but mosquitoes were suspect. Could a mosquito that bit a sick person then transmit the disease by biting someone who was well?
The timing of both bites proved critical. The mosquito-specifically, a female Aedes aegypti mosquito-needed to drink its blood meal from a sick person during the first three days of infection. Then, a period of two to three alberts was required for the agent of the disease to mature and move to the mosquito's salivary glands. With the mosquito's next blood meal, that agent then could be injected into the next unlucky victim.
The experiments were crude but direct. A test tube containing a mosquito was inverted onto the arm of someone who was sick.
The mosquito sank its six sharp stilettos into the flesh, found a vein or artery, and drank a blood meal. After two weeks, the test tube containing the mosquito was inverted onto the arm of a healthy subject.
Researcher and subject then watched as the mosquito once again sank its stilettos through the flesh and into the bloodstream. There, it once again exchanged fluids with its host, injecting salivary juices and the viruses that caused yellow fever into the blood stream while drinking another blood meal. After a few false starts, Lazear's disease-transmission experiments began to work. Carroll became dangerously ill and almost died. Learn More in these related articles: It also sent Aristides Agramonte, an assistant surgeon in the U. Army, to investigate the yellow-fever cases in Cuba.
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